Sin, Sacrifice, and Satan

Part 1: Sin

There are many interpretations as to what sin is, however, many of these interpretations are not based upon fact. What does sin mean? How does one commit an act of sin? These are some important questions in order to know and understand, just what sin is.

 

Simply put, sin is the transgression of the Law according to the King James Version:

 

Whosoever commits sin, transgresses also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law. 1 John 3:4

 

This, however, is not an accurate translation of the Greek Text. A more accurate translation would be:

 

πας ο ποιων την αμαρτιαν και την ανομιαν ποιει και η αμαρτια εστιν η ανομια

 

All who are doing sin also does lawlessness, and sin is lawlessness.

 

Anomia is the Greek word which means literally without (a) law (nomos). This is simply stating that sin is acting outside or without the authority of the law. What law? There is only One Law in the Hebrew and Greek Text, this is what is called Torah. The Torah is what was given to Moses on Mt. Sinai, which was written upon two tablets of stone.

 

And the Lord said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there, and I will give thee Tables of stone, and a Law, and Commandments which I have written, that thou mayest teach them. Exodus 24:12

 

The KJV translators make a clear mistranslation here. They translate the word Law as if it were indefinite (a Law), while the Hebrew has it definite (the Law):

 

וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל-מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וֶהְיֵה-שָׁם וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת-לֻחֹת הָאֶבֶן וְהַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַבְתִּי לְהוֹרֹתָם

And the LORD said to Moses, ascend the Mountain to Me, and be there, and I will give to you the Tablets of Stone, The Law (HaTorah) and The Commandments I have written so you may Instruct them (l’horotam).

 

The Law in the Hebrew is Torah, which actually means instruction. It is from the same verb used as the end of the verse which I translated Instruct and the KJV translates as to teach. The Greek has it as:

 

καὶ εἶπεν κύριος πρὸς Μωυσῆν Ἀνάβηθι πρός με εἰς τὸ ὄρος καὶ ἴσθι ἐκεῖ· καὶ δώσω σοι τὰ πυξία τὰ λίθινα, τὸν νόμον καὶ τὰς ἐντολάς, ἃς ἔγραψα νομοθετῆσαι αὐτοῖς.

 

And the Lord said to Moses, Come up to me into the mountain, and be there; and I will give thee the tables of stone, the law (ton Nomon) and the commandments, which I have written to give them laws (nomothetesai).

 

This is the only Law ever recorded which was written by the Hand of God and given to people to live by. So when you read “law” in the Hebrew Text it is Torah, and in the Greek Christian Text, it is Nomos. There is no difference, as they are both speaking of the Stone Tablets given to Moses.

 

Sin is not a moral stain upon the soul, but an actual offense, an infraction against the Divine Laws, as Webster defines it:

 

“The voluntary departure of a moral agent from a known rule of rectitude or duty, prescribed by God; any voluntary transgression of the divine law, or violation of a divine command; a wicked act; iniquity. Sin is either a positive act in which a known divine law is violated, or it is the voluntary neglect to obey a positive divine command, or a rule of duty clearly implied in such command. Sin comprehends not action only, but the neglect of known duty, all evil thoughts, purposes, words, and desires, whatever is contrary to God’s commands or law.”

 

God gave the Law to the Israelites at Sinai. This Law encompassed religion, civil law, military law, economic law and also penal laws. This means that God not only gave the Law but gave the penalty for violating this Law. Contrary to popular opinion, to commit sin was not always punishable by death as Paul claims:

 

For the wages of sin is death Romans 6:23

 

There are sins which do not lead to death:

 

All unrighteousness is a sin, and there is a sin not unto death. 1John 5:17

 

The Law makes it clear, there are sins which demand certain payments, restitution, or certainly another recompense. However, there are some sins which clearly do not have these other options, rather the offender must be put to death. Among these are adultery, idolatry, breaking the Sabbath command, or murder as defined by the Law. All these crimes or sins do not allow a ransom for the life of the offender.

 

Part 2: Sacrifice

 

What is a sacrifice? What does this mean? The word “sacrifice” comes from the Latin sacrificare meaning to make something sacred. Sacred in turn comes from the Latin sacer meaning devoted to a Divinity (for destruction). Hence, to sacrifice means to devote a thing to a divinity for destruction.

 

In the Hebrew Text, sacrifices are called by various terms. The most common is zebach, which means literally to slaughter. A zebach can be one of many classes such as an oleh which is completely burned upon the altar, shlamim which is only partially burned, the rest of the zebach is eaten, etc.

 

Zebach is given for many reasons, namely as a votive gift, or freewill offering. It can be given for recompense for certain crimes, etc. It can also be given as a religious rite.

 

The Hebrew Text lists several crimes for which a zebach is given. The Sin Offering with all its regulation can be found in Leviticus 4:1-35. What we can glean from this instruction is that the laws which the LORD gave to Moses for the people were to be kept, but if a transgression was made, through ignorance, then the Sin Offering would be the restitution and ransom for the crime.

 

Along with sacrifice, we have two words which are used synonymously, and which are central to the Sin Offering. These are forgiveness and pardon. Forgiveness and pardon depend intimately upon atonement:

 

Lev 4:20 And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with this: And the Priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.

 

Lev 4:26 And he shall burn all his fat upon the Altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the Priest shall make an atonement for him, as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him.

 

Lev 4:31 And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the Priest shall burn it upon the Altar, for a sweet savor unto the Lord, and the Priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.

 

Lev 4:35 And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace offerings: and the Priest shall burn them upon the Altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord, and the Priest shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

 

Forgiveness comes from the Old English forgiefan, which means to give away. Pardon comes from the Latin perdonare meaning for “for a gift”. Notice how these two terms go hand in hand with the atonement, which is given by the offender. It is only after the atonement is given that the offender is considered forgiven, or pardoned.

 

and the Priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.

 

What then is an atonement? Atonement is a contrived English word used by translators to explain the Hebrew words kippur and kofer. Both of these words come from the verb kafar, which means to cover. In the sense of crime and punishment, the atonement was the gift given by the offender to the Authority (in the Biblical sense God Himself) as a ransom for his own life. Once the kofer is given to the Authority, the offender is deemed forgiven, meaning he has already given the ransom to the Authority.

 

In a literal sense a kofer is a type of bribe, given to an authority to “blind the eyes” to an offense:

 

Gen 32:20 And say ye moreover, Behold, thy servant Jacob is behind us: for he said, I will appease (akaf’rah) him with the present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his face; peradventure he will accept of me.

 

1Sa 12:3 Behold, here I am, witnesse against me before the Lord, and before his Anointed: Whose ox have I taken? or whose ass have I taken? or who have I defrauded? who have I oppressed? or of whose hand have I received any bribe (kofer) to blind mine eyes therewith? and I will restore it to you.

 

There are some sins, such as murder (as defined by the Law) which do not permit the offender to give a kofer, and no ransom then is taken for his life, and the offender is then executed.

 

Num 35:31 Moreover, ye shall take no satisfaction (kofer) for the life of a murderer, which is guiltie of death, but he shall be surely put to death.

 

It is a more suitable analogy to compare the U.S. Legal System with that of the Torah. The Torah would be the Constitution, the Priesthood as the Judicial Branch, and the High Priest as both the Solicitor and Supreme Judge. The penal laws would be filled with punishments from fines, restitution to even capital punishment. In all these cases, the Kofer would be equal to the fines and restitution. In the Biblical times, the sacrifices were the fines paid to the court system.

 

 

Part 3: Satan

 

Most of the Christian world understands Satan to be the antithesis and antagonist of God. The Christian scholars claim that Satan was one of the highest orders of angels, the archangels. He was perfect, and because of his pride, he was cast out of the heavenly court. This fall caused him to turn against God and seek to destroy God’s image upon Earth, mankind.

 

He is represented in the Greek Christian Text as the father of lies (John 8:44), as a murderer (John 8:44), a deceiver (Rev 12:9), a tempter (Matt. 4:3), and as a devouring roaring lion (1Pet 5:8). These epithets are, simply, of Greek Christian Text derivation. It is from the Greek Christian Text that most of Satan’s myth comes down to the modern era.

 

In this article, I would like to discuss the Hebrew Text’s ideology concerning Satan, the angels, and God. Can the Greek Christian Text’s descriptions of Satan stand up to scrutiny?

 

Many Christian theologians claim that Satan was an angel of the highest order, called Cherubim and that he was in charge of at least a third of the angelic host. The word Cherubim is the plural of Cherub, a word of uncertain derivation. It is possibly from the Assyrian kirubu, which was a winged bull or even more likely from the Assyrian kirubu which means great or mighty.

 

The first mention of cherubim in the Bible comes from the account found in Genesis 3, which was at the expulsion of humanity from the Garden of Eden. The cherubim were stationed before the Garden to guard the way to the tree of life:

 

וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָֽאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַֽחַיִּֽים׃ ס

 

So he drove out the man and stationed the cherubim with the flame of the ever-turning sword before the garden to guard the way of the tree of life. Gen 3:24

The next place cherubim are mentioned in the Bible is in the instructions given to Moses for the construction of the Tabernacle. The Ark of the Covenant had a covering called kaforeth. Upon each end of the kaforeth, there were cherubim facing each other. This kaforeth is known as the throne of YHWH, as this was where He would meet and commune with the people:

 

וְעָשִׂיתָ שְׁנַיִם כְּרֻבִים זָהָב מִקְשָׁה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם מִשְּׁנֵי קְצֹות הַכַּפֹּֽרֶת׃ וַעֲשֵׂה כְּרוּב אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה וּכְרוּב־אֶחָד מִקָּצָה מִזֶּה מִן־הַכַּפֹּרֶת תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים עַל־שְׁנֵי קְצֹותָֽיו׃ וְהָיוּ הַכְּרֻבִים פֹּרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה סֹכְכִים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו אֶל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת יִהְיוּ פְּנֵי הַכְּרֻבִֽים׃ וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל־הָאָרֹן מִלְמָעְלָה וְאֶל־הָאָרֹן תִּתֵּן אֶת־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶֽיךָ׃ וְנֹועַדְתִּי לְךָ שָׁם וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אֹותְךָ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ פ

 

And you will make two cherubim of beaten gold, and you shall make them at the two ends of the kaforeth. You will make the one cherub at this end, and you will make the other cherub at the other end, thus you will make the two cherubim at its two ends. The cherubim shall stretch up their wings, covering (sokeikh) the kaforeth with their wings, and each of the cherubim’s faces shall be toward the kaforeth. Then you will place the kaforeth upon the Ark, and you shall place the Testimony which I am giving you in the Ark, and I shall make Myself known to you there, and I will speak with you from above the kaforeth, between the two cherubim which are upon the Ark of the Testimony, with all which I command you to the Children of Israel. Ex 25:18-22

 

From this point onwards, the cherubim and the imagery of the Ark of the Covenant are considered the Throne of God. This can be seen in the depictions of God’s throne by Isaiah (6; 37:16) and Ezekiel (10-11), as well as from the poetry of the Psalms (18).

 

It is from this premise that most Christian scholars make a great leap, and connect the idea of the covering cherub of Ezekiel 28:14 with Satan:

 

אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסֹּוכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתֹוךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּֽכְתָּ׃

 

You are the covering anointed cherub and I placed you in the Holy Mountain of God, and you walked among the Stones of Fire.

 

However, one must remove the narrative from its context to make this claim. The person being spoken about was the King of Tyre:

 

בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּֽה־אָמַר ׀ אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵל אָנִי מֹושַׁב אֱלֹהִים יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּלֵב יַמִּים וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְֽלֹא־אֵל וַתִּתֵּן לִבְּךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִֽים׃

 

Son of man, say to the Prince of Tyre, Thus says my Lord YHWH: Because your heart lifted up and you said, “I am a God, I sit in God’s seat in the heart of the seas”; yet you are a man and not a God, even though you set your heart as the heart of God. Ezekiel 28:2

 

The context of chapter 28 is a metaphoric discourse from God to the enemies of Israel, who have vexed His people from every side, and though they had a hand in the downfall and destruction of Israel, God warns that they too will have their day of reckoning. In the same manner that God describes the King of Tyre as a cherub, in the garden of God, etc. He also spoke concerning other kings. For instance:

 

Pharaoh, the King of Egypt is called a dragon having scales:

 

דַּבֵּר וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּֽה־אָמַר ׀ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי עָלֶיךָ פַּרְעֹה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם הַתַּנִּים הַגָּדֹול הָרֹבֵץ בְּתֹוךְ יְאֹרָיו אֲשֶׁר אָמַר לִי יְאֹרִי וַאֲנִי עֲשִׂיתִֽנִי׃ וְנָתַתִּי חַחִיִּים בִּלְחָיֶיךָ וְהִדְבַּקְתִּי דְגַת־יְאֹרֶיךָ בְּקַשְׂקְשֹׂתֶיךָ וְהַעֲלִיתִיךָ מִתֹּוךְ יְאֹרֶיךָ וְאֵת כָּל־דְּגַת יְאֹרֶיךָ בְּקַשְׂקְשֹׂתֶיךָ תִּדְבָּֽק׃

 

Speak and say, “Thus says my Lord YHWH, Behold I am against you Pharaoh, king of Egypt, the Great Dragon which lies in the midst of its river, who said, My river is mine, I made it. But I will put hooks in your jaws, and I will cause the fish of your rivers to stick to your scales, and I will bring you up from the midst of your rivers and all the fish of your rivers will stick to your scales Ezekiel 29:3-4

 

Both Pharaoh and the King of Assyria are said to have been trees in the Garden of Eden, the Garden of God which is identified as Lebanon:

 

בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר אֶל־פַּרְעֹה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וְאֶל־הֲמֹונֹו אֶל־מִי דָּמִיתָ בְגָדְלֶֽךָ׃

 

Son of man, say to Pharaoh King of Egypt and to his multitude, Who is like you in Greatness? Ezekiel 31:2

 

הִנֵּה אַשּׁוּר אֶרֶז בַּלְּבָנֹון יְפֵה עָנָף וְחֹרֶשׁ מֵצַל וּגְבַהּ קֹומָה וּבֵין עֲבֹתִים הָיְתָה צַמַּרְתֹּֽו׃

 

Look, Assyria is a beautiful branched cedar in Lebanon, an overshadowing shroud, with a high stature and his top was among the thick boughs. Ezekiel 31:3

 

אֲרָזִים לֹֽא־עֲמָמֻהוּ בְּגַן־אֱלֹהִים בְּרֹושִׁים לֹא דָמוּ אֶל־סְעַפֹּתָיו וְעַרְמֹנִים לֹֽא־הָיוּ כְּפֹֽארֹתָיו כָּל־עֵץ בְּגַן־אֱלֹהִים לֹא־דָמָה אֵלָיו בְּיָפְיֹֽו׃ יָפֶה עֲשִׂיתִיו בְּרֹב דָּֽלִיֹּותָיו וַיְקַנְאֻהוּ כָּל־עֲצֵי־עֵדֶן אֲשֶׁר בְּגַן הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃ ס

 

The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the fir trees were not like his boughs, and the plane trees were not as his branches; nor was any tree in the garden of God like unto him in his beauty. I made him fair by the multitude of his branches: so that all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him. Ezekiel 31:8-9

 

Contextually, beginning in Chapter 24 and ending in Chapter 39 we have a scene where Israel is destroyed because of her idolatry (23) and the nations which were used as the instruments of the destruction (24-32) are given the news that they will, in turn, be destroyed for their part. In chapters 33-37 we have the Hope of Return given to Israel and Judah, culminating in the battle of Gog and Magog in chapters 38-39. None of this discourse speaks of an angelic host, nor of any archangel falling from his position in Heaven.

 

Lucifer, Who is He?

 

According to today’s estimation, Satan’s proper name is Lucifer. This assumption is based on the text of Isaiah 14:12:

 

אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חֹולֵשׁ עַל־גֹּויִֽם׃

 

How have you fallen from heaven Lucifer son of the Dawn, you have been cut down to earth, disabler of nations.

 

The problem here is that Lucifer is not in the Hebrew text, but is left over from a Latin translation made by Jerome in 405 ACE:

 

quomodo cecidisti de caelo lucifer qui mane oriebaris corruisti in terram qui vulnerabas gentes

 

How are you fallen from heaven, Lucifer, who rises in the morning, fallen to the ground, that did wound the nations

 

Lucifer means light bringer in Latin, and is a translation of the Greek Heosphoros which means bringer of dawn:

 

πῶς ἐξέπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων; συνετρίβη εἰς τὴν γῆν ὁ ἀποστέλλων πρὸς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη.

 

How are you fallen from heaven heosphoros, who rises in the morning, the one who is sent to all nations has been cut down to earth.

 

One ironic thing about the word Lucifer is that it only appears three times in the Latin Vulgate: Job 11:17, Isaiah 14:12 and also 2 Peter 1:19:

 

et habemus firmiorem propheticum sermonem cui bene facitis adtendentes quasi lucernae lucenti in caliginoso loco donec dies inlucescat et lucifer oriatur in cordibus vestris

 

and we have more firm prophetical word as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until which you do well, giving heed to the day dawns and the morning star (lucifer) arise in your hearts 2 Peter 1:19

 

lucifer is the name the Romans gave to the morning star, or Venus. Incidentally, it is also the same title which belongs to Jesus

 

I, Jesus, sent My angel to testify these things to you over the assemblies. I am the Root and Offspring of David, the bright and morning Star. Revelation 22:16

 

Here is Adam Clarke’s commentary on 2 Peter 1:19:

 

“And to this doctrine, thus confirmed, ye do well to take heed; for it is that light that shines in the dark place – in the Gentile world, as well as among the Jews; giving light to them that sit in darkness, and bringing the prisoners out of the prison house: and this ye must continue to do till the day of his second, last, and most glorious appearing to judge the world comes; and the day star, φωσφορος, this light-bringer, arise in your hearts – manifest himself to your eternal consolation. Or perhaps the latter clause of the verse might be thus understood: The prophecies concerning Jesus, which have been so signally confirmed to us on the holy mount, have always been as a light shining in a dark place, from the time of their delivery to the time in which the bright day of Gospel light and salvation dawned forth, and the Son of righteousness has arisen in our souls, with healing in his rays. And to this all who waited for Christ’s appearing have taken heed. The word φωσφορος, phosphorus, generally signified the planet Venus, when she is the morning star; and thus she is called in most European nations.”

 

Albert Barnes on the same verse:

 

And the day-star – The morning star – the bright star that at certain periods of the year leads on the day, and which is a pledge that the morning is about to dawn. Compare Rev_2:28; Rev_22:16.

 

Vincent’s Word Study entry on the same verse:

 

The day-star (φωσφόρος)

Of which our word phosphorus is a transcript. Lit., light-bearer, like Lucifer, front lux, light, and fero, to bear. See Aeschylus, “Agamemnon,” 245.

 

Let’s place Isaiah 14:12 in context here; the one sent to all nations is the King of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar (verse 4) and not Satan. The King of Babylon was sent against all the nations, Egypt, Assyria, Lebanon, etc. and destroyed them. In this chapter, the King of Babylon is being given the news of the demise of his kingdom. Why? As the chapter begins, we are told that:

 

For YHWH will have pity on Jacob, and will yet choose among Israel, and set them in their own land. And the stranger shall be joined to them; and they shall cling to the house of Jacob. And the peoples shall take them and bring them to their own place. And the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of YHWH for slaves and slave girls. And they shall be captives of their captors; and they shall rule over their oppressors. And it shall be, in the day that YHWH shall give you rest from your sorrow, and from your trouble, and from the hard bondage which was pressed on you, you shall lift up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say: How the exacter, the gold gatherer, has ceased! YHWH has broken the rod of the wicked, the staff of rulers, who struck the peoples in wrath, a blow without turning away, ruling the nations in anger, dealing out persecution without restraint. Isaiah 14:1-6

 

This chapter is a promise concerning the end of the Babylonian captivity and the return of the Jews to their homeland. So the context here is the same as that in Ezekiel above. None of this chapter is dealing with Satan, nor is his name mentioned in any of these texts. Lucifer is not the name of Satan, but is a product of willful misinterpretation and the fancy of the church clergy.

 

What about the Devil?

 

Looking at the Hebrew scripture, you would expect to find the devil everywhere. You would almost swear Satan was there from the very beginning, spreading lies and mischief. This is not the case though. The word devil only appears 4 times in a few English translations. These are Leviticus 17:7; Deuteronomy 32:17; 2 Chronicles 11:15; and finally Psalm 106:37.

 

In Lev. 17:7 and 2 Chr. 11:15, the Hebrew word translated as the devil is saiyr, which is just a hairy goat. When you examine these two verses, you will realize that what the KJV translators considered devils were in fact idols of goats. Looking at the entire context of Lev. 17, you will notice that the Hebrews were still sacrificing their animals to these idols. God then commands Moses to instruct the Hebrews:

 

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them; This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, saying, What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people: To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they offer in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the LORD, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and offer them for peace offerings unto the LORD. And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and burn the fat for a sweet savour unto the LORD. And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring. This shall be a statute forever unto them throughout their generations. Leviticus 17:1-7 KJV

 

The Hebrews were commanded by God to bring their sacrifices to His altar;

 

And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold. An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it. Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon. Exodus 20:22-26 KJV

 

When you read these together with 2 Chr. 11:15, you will see that these verses are speaking of idols, and not devils in the sense of an individual or collective entity. Let’s look at 2 Chronicles 11:15:

 

And he ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made. 2 Chr. 11:15 KJV

 

Here you can see that devils really are just goat idols “which he had made” and not devils in the modern concept.

 

In Deuteronomy 32:17 and Psalm 106:37 the Hebrew word translated as devils is sheidim the plural of sheid. This is a noun derived from the verb shud meaning to waste or to destroy. In the entire Hebrew scripture this verb is used only once in Psalm 91:6:

 

Nor for the pestilence that walketh in darkness; nor for the destruction that wasteth (yashud) at noonday. Ps. 91:6 KJV [transliteration mine]

 

Yashud is the imperfect simple verb conjugation of shud. Taking this as our qualifier, we can see that the noun derivatives simply mean a waste. Now let’s look at these two verses again and place a more correct translation of the word sheidim.

 

יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם | חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם

 

They sacrificed to wastes, a non-divinity, gods they did not know, new ones that come lately whom their fathers did not fear. (My translation)

 

Verse 21, I believe, supports this translation:

 

They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God; they have provoked me to anger with their vanities (KJV)

 

קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם

 

The made me jealous by a non-divinity, they angered me with their vanities. (My translation)

 

Psalm 106:37 shows this to be accurate, as they sacrificed even their children to these idols which are not a living deity; let’s look at the whole context, which will make this as clear as the nose on your face:

 

They did not destroy the nations, concerning whom the LORD commanded them: But were mingled among the heathen, and learned their works. And they served their idols: which were a snare unto them. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils, And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan: and the land was polluted with blood. Thus were they defiled with their own works and went a whoring with their own inventions. Psalm 106:34-39 (KJV)

I dare not say that the Hebrews were capable of giving life to these devils. I would rather hold them to be just what the scripture says, namely: idols of their works and their inventions. In every case where the English translation is devils we now know that this does not mean an independent living entity. Rather it simply means an idol, or specifically a hairy goat idol.

 

Who Then Is Satan?

 

Again, using the Hebrew scripture as our guide, we would expect to find Satan from the very beginning. However, in the English translations, the first appearance of Satan is in 1 Chronicles 21.

 

And Satan stood up against Israel and provoked David to number Israel. 1 Chr. 21:1 (KJV)

 

This is the first time, according to the English translations, the word satan appears. Here he provokes David to number Israel. This is in violation of God’s command given to Moses; Ex. 30:11-16. Israel was to be numbered not by counting the individual, but by counting the half-shekel given as the atonement money. This incurred God’s wrath:

 

And God was displeased with this thing; therefore he smote Israel. 1 Chr. 21:7 (KJV)

 

What is the funny thing is that there is a similar passage in 2 Samuel 24:1, however, there is one major difference:

 

And again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah. 2 Sam. 24:1 (KJV)

 

Did you catch it? According to 2 Samuel, it was God Himself who provoked David to number Israel. Notice how the KJV translators misdirect in the translation of the word provoke here. The Hebrew of both verses are identical:

 

וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל | וַיָּסֶת אֶת דָּוִיד לִמְנוֹת אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל:

1 Chr. 21:1

וַיֹּסֶף אַף יְהוָה לַחֲרוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל | וַיָּסֶת אֶת דָּוִד בָּהֶם לֵאמֹר לֵךְ מְנֵה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת יְהוּדָה׃

2 Sam. 24:1

 

The phrase of both verses is wayaset et david. Here yaset is the imperfect causative of sut meaning to provoke or incite. According to the former, it was Satan who caused the provocation, and in the later, it was God who caused the provocation. Which one is correct?

 

The answer is in the way the Hebrew scripture portrays God and Satan. It may be a surprise to you, but Satan is not the cause of evil, nor of temptation to evil. Who is? I am glad you asked.

 

According to the Hebrew scripture, God is the Creator, and there is none besides Him. He created everything, even evil. Let’s look at the proof.

 

I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me: That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the LORD, and there is none else. I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things. Isaiah 45:5-7 (KJV)

 

It is God who sets evil before us:

 

See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil Deuteronomy 30:15 (KJV)

 

It is God who causes evil in a city:

 

Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, and the people not be afraid? shall there be evil in a city, and the LORD hath not done it? Amos 3:6 (KJV)

 

Contrary to Christian theology, God is the creator of evil. He uses evil, and temps His servants with evil to see if they will follow Him with all their hearts:

 

If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder, And the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them; Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for the LORD your God proveth you, to know whether ye love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. Ye shall walk after the LORD your God, and fear him, and keep his commandments, and obey his voice, and ye shall serve him, and cleave unto him. Deuteronomy 13:1-4 (KJV)

The Hebrew for the word proveth is m’naseh, an intensive active participle of nasah meaning to tempt. This same word is translated tempt in Genisis 22:1:

 

And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am. Gn 22:1 (KJV)

 

Here is the Hebrew:

 

וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם | וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃

Gn 22:1

 

לֹא תִשְׁמַע אֶל דִּבְרֵי הַנָּבִיא הַהוּא אוֹ אֶל חוֹלֵם הַחֲלוֹם הַהוּא | כִּי מְנַסֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם לָדַעַת הֲיִשְׁכֶם אֹהֲבִים אֶת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּכָל לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁכֶם׃

De. 13:3

 

The difference is in the conjugation. Both are of the piel verb. Gn 22:1 has the perfect form nisah and De. has the participle m’naseh.

 

God even sends false prophets for His own purpose:

 

And he said, Hear thou, therefore, the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left. And the LORD said, Who shall persuade Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramothgilead? And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner. And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the LORD, and said, I will persuade him. And the LORD said unto him, Wherewith? And he said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And he said, Thou shalt persuade him, and prevail also: go forth and do so. Now, therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets, and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee. 1 Kings 22:19-23; 2 Chr. 18:18-22 (KJV)

 

God even lies to His own prophets at times, testing their obedience:

 

And the man of God said unto the king, If thou wilt give me half thine house, I will not go in with thee, neither will I eat bread nor drink water in this place: For so was it charged me by the word of the LORD, saying, Eat no bread, nor drink water, nor turn again by the same way that thou camest. So he went another way and returned not by the way that he came to Bethel. Now there dwelt an old prophet in Bethel; and his sons came and told him all the works that the man of God had done that day in Bethel: the words which he had spoken unto the king, them they told also to their father. And their father said unto them, What way went he? For his sons had seen what way the man of God went, which came from Judah. And he said unto his sons, Saddle me the ass. So they saddled him the ass: and he rode thereon, And went after the man of God, and found him sitting under an oak: and he said unto him, Art thou the man of God that camest from Judah? And he said I am. Then he said unto him, Come home with me, and eat bread. And he said, I may not return with thee, nor go in with thee: neither will I eat bread nor drink water with thee in this place: For it was said to me by the word of the LORD, Thou shalt eat no bread nor drink water there, nor turn again to go by the way that thou camest. He said unto him, I am a prophet also as thou art; and an angel spake unto me by the word of the LORD, saying, Bring him back with thee into thine house, that he may eat bread and drink water. But he lied unto him. So he went back with him, and did eat bread in his house, and drank water. And it came to pass, as they sat at the table, that the word of the LORD came unto the prophet that brought him back: And he cried unto the man of God that came from Judah, saying, Thus saith the LORD, Forasmuch as thou hast disobeyed the mouth of the LORD, and hast not kept the commandment which the LORD thy God commanded thee, But camest back, and hast eaten bread and drunk water in the place, of the which the LORD did say to thee, Eat no bread, and drink no water; thy carcass shall not come unto the sepulcher of thy fathers. And it came to pass after he had eaten bread, and after he had drunk, that he saddled for him the ass, to wit, for the prophet whom he had brought back. And when he was gone, a lion met him by the way, and slew him: and his carcass was cast in the way, and the ass stood by it, the lion also stood by the carcass. 1 Kings 13:8-24 (KJV)

 

Throughout the Hebrew scripture, you will find that it is God Himself who created evil, and uses the evil as a means of testing and tempting His servants. He sends His angels out as lying spirits, and He sends lying prophets, even to His own prophets. There is no place that hints of an evil angel acting against His authority. On the contrary, the scripture is clear that His angel, and all angels are His, obey His word:

 

Bless the LORD, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word. Ps. 103:20 (KJV)

 

A better translation of the Hebrew would be:

 

בָּרֲכוּ יְהוָה מַלְאָכָיו | גִּבֹּרֵי כֹחַ עֹשֵׂי דְבָרוֹ לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקוֹל דְּבָרוֹ

 

Bless the Lord His angels, excelling in strength, doing His word, listening to the voice of His words. Ps. 103:20 (my translation)

 

This leaves no room for angels who could be disobedient.

 

In the Hebrew text, the first time the word satan is used is in Numbers 22:22, 32. However, the KJV translators hide this point, so the reader would not make the logical connection:

 

And God’s anger was kindled because he went: and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against him. Now he was riding upon his ass, and his two servants were with him. Num. 22:22 KJV

וַיִּחַר אַף אֱלֹהִים כִּי הוֹלֵךְ הוּא וַיִּתְיַצֵּב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה בַּדֶּרֶךְ לְשָׂטָן לוֹ

וְהוּא רֹכֵב עַל אֲתֹנוֹ וּשְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו עִמּוֹ׃

Num 22:22

 

And God’s anger was kindled because he went, and the angel of the Lord set himself in the way as a satan for him. And he was riding on his donkey and two young men were with him. Num. 22:22

 

And the angel of the LORD said unto him, Wherefore hast thou smitten thine ass these three times? behold, I went out to withstand thee because thy way is perverse before me: Num. 22:32 (KJV)

 

וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עַל מָה הִכִּיתָ אֶת אֲתֹנְךָ זֶה שָׁלוֹשׁ רְגָלִים | הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי יָצָאתִי לְשָׂטָן כִּי יָרַט הַדֶּרֶךְ לְנֶגְדִּי

 

And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why did you strike your donkey these three times? Look, I set myself as a satan because the way is reckless before me. Num 22:32

 

The translators did not want you to draw the conclusion that even the angel of the Lord is called a satan. There is a good reason for this concealment. Throughout the scriptures, there is only one figure given the title Angel of the Lord, or more precisely, Angel of YHWH.

 

It is important to keep in mind, that this was written by Moses, while the Israelites yet wondered the wilderness. Why is it so important to note this? Simply because in all the Hebrew Text, there is only one angel who is called Angel of YHWH, and this was the Angel who appeared to Abraham, Hagar, Isaac, Jacob, and to Moses, and who also spoke from the burning bush, as well as the Angel who was sent to lead Israel to Canaan, and to drive out their enemies before them: Gen 16:7; 22:11; 31:11; Ex 3:2; 14:19; 23:20, 23; 32:34; 33:2.

 

This Angel of YHWH was the first to be identified as satan. What is going to be a shocker to many is that Isaiah says this same Angel is also the Holy Spirit:

 

I will mention the mercies of YHWH, the praises of YHWH, according to all that YHWH has benefited us, and the great good to the house of Israel, by which He benefited them according to His mercies, and according to the multitude of His loving-kindness. For He said, Surely they are My people, sons that do not lie, and He is their Savior. In all their affliction, He was not a foe; and the Angel of His Presence saved them. In His love and in His pity He redeemed them. And He bore them up and lifted them up all the days of old. But they rebelled and provoked His Holy Spirit, so He was turned to be their enemy; He fought against them. Then His people remembered the days past of Moses and His people, saying, Where is He who brought us up from the sea with the shepherd of His flock. Where is He who put His Holy Spirit within him; who led them by Moses’ right hand, with His glorious arm, dividing the water before them, to make for Him an everlasting name? He led them through the deeps; like the horse in the wilderness, they did not stumble. As the cattle go down into the valley, so the Spirit of YHWH caused him to rest; so You led Your people, to make a glorious name for Yourself. Is 62:7-14

 

The Angel of YHWH is only known as Satan, when he acts as an opponent to the unrighteous, or as a tester, tempter to the faithful. Even though these are the Holy Spirit’s duties, he in no way is disobedient to God in any way shape or form.

 

According to the Hebrew Scriptures, satan is merely a title, along with other titles of the same angelic figure. This angel is called, Mal’akh YHWH (the Angel of the Lord) Ex 3:2; Mal’akh Panav (The Angel of His Presence/Face) Is 63:9; Panai (My Presence/Face) Ex 23:20, 33:2, 14; Penu’el (The Face of God) Gen 32:20; Peli (Wonderful) Jg 13:18; Eimaty (My Fear) Ex 23:27; Ruchakha HaTov (Your Good Spirit) Neh. 9:20, Ruach HaQadosh (Holy Spirit) Is 63:10; and also as satan (adversary) Num 22:22, 32; 1 Chr 21:1

 

All these titles represent the same angelic figure. For those who are obedient to God, he is the Good Spirit, who instructs them in the ways of God Ex 23:20-23; Neh 9:20, but for the disobedient, he becomes their enemy and fights against them Ex 23:21; Is 63:10.

 

 

Conclusion:

 

There is no place in all the Hebrew Scriptures which supports the idea that satan acted independently of God’s authority. Nor will you find anything which would lend support to the idea that satan is some rebellious angel, who waged war in heaven, trying to supplant God. The concept of an independent evil spirit is foreign to the Hebrew scripture and the theology of Israel.

The Satan Myth

The Satan Myth

The Modern Concept of Evil

 

Today, when you speak of Satan, the thought comes to mind of the embodiment of evil. Of a narcissistic angel who rebelled against God, an angel who waged a heavenly war to take God’s throne and who was eventually cast out taking a third of the angelic host with him.

Where did these ideas come from? Was there really a war in heaven, and was God’s sovereignty really in jeopardy? In this article, I will discuss these concepts in three parts. First, I will uncover the evidence of Satan in the Hebrew scriptures, called the Old Testament by Christians. Second, I will examine the New Testament record of Satan. Finally, I will uncover the true origin of the Satan myth.

 

 

Part One

The Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament)

 

 

  1. The Devil

 

Looking at the Hebrew scripture, you would expect to find the devil everywhere. You would almost swear Satan was there from the very beginning, spreading lies and mischief. This is not the case though. The word devil only appears 4 times in a few English translations. These are Leviticus 17:7; Deuteronomy 32:17; 2 Chronicles 11:15; and finally Psalm 106:37.

 

In Lev. 17:7 and 2 Chr. 11:15, the Hebrew word translated as devils is saiyr, which is just a hairy goat. When you examine these two verses, you will realize that what the KJV translators considered devils were in fact idols of goats. Looking at the entire context of Lev. 17, you will notice that the Hebrews were still sacrificing their animals to these idols. God then commands Moses to instruct the Hebrews:

 

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them; This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, saying, What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people: To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they offer in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the LORD, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and offer them for peace offerings unto the LORD. And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the LORD at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and burn the fat for a sweet savor unto the LORD.  And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations.  Leviticus 17:1-7 KJV [emphasis mine]

 

The Hebrews were commanded by God to bring their sacrifices to His altar;

 

And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold. An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it. Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness is not discovered thereon. Exodus 20:22-26 KJV [emphasis mine]

 

When you read these together with 2 Chr. 11:15, you will see that these verses are speaking of idols, and not devils in the sense of an individual or collective entity. Let’s look at 2 Chronicles 11:15:

 

And he ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made. 2 Chr. 11:15 KJV [emphasis mine]

 

Here you can see that devils really are just goat idols “which he had made” and not devils in the modern concept.

 

In Deuteronomy 32:17 and Psalm 106:37 the Hebrew word translated as devils is sheidim the plural of sheid. This is a noun derived from the verb shud meaning to waste or to destroy. In the entire Hebrew scripture this verb is used only once in Psalm 91:6:

 

Nor for the pestilence that walketh in darkness; nor for the destruction that wasteth (yashud) at noonday. Ps. 91:6 KJV [transliteration mine]

 

Yashud is the imperfect simple verb conjugation of shud. Taking this as our qualifier, we can see that the noun derivatives simply mean a waste. Now let’s look at these two verses again and place a more correct translation of the word sheidim.

 

יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם | חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃

 

They sacrificed to wastes, a non-divinity, gods they did not know, new ones that come lately whom their fathers did not fear. (My translation)

 

Verse 21, I believe,  supports this translation:

 

They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God; they have provoked me to anger with their vanities (KJV)

 

קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם

They made me jealous by a non-divinity, they angered me with their vanities. (My translation)

 

Psalm 106:37 shows this to be accurate, as they sacrificed even their children to these idols which are not a living deity; let’s look at the whole context, which will make this as clear as the nose on your face:

 

They did not destroy the nations, concerning whom the LORD commanded them: But were mingled among the heathen, and learned their works. And they served their idols: which were a snare unto them. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils, And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan: and the land was polluted with blood. Thus were they defiled with their own works and went a whoring with their own inventions. Psalm 106:34-39 (KJV) [emphasis mine]

 

 

I dare not say that the Hebrews were capable of giving life to these devils. I would rather hold them to be just what the scripture says, namely: idols of their works and their inventions. In every case where the English translation is devils we now know that this does not mean an independent living entity. Rather it simply means an idol, or specifically a hairy goat idol.

 

  1. Satan

 

Again, using the Hebrew scripture as our guide, we would expect to find Satan from the very beginning. However, in the English translations, the first appearance of Satan is in 1 Chronicles 21.

 

And Satan stood up against Israel and provoked David to number Israel. 1 Chr. 21:1 (KJV)

 

This is the first time, according to the English translations, the word satan appears. Here he provokes David to number Israel. This is in violation of God’s command given to Moses; Ex. 30:11-16. Israel was to be numbered not by counting the individual, but by counting the half shekel given as the atonement money. This incurred God’s wrath:

 

And God was displeased with this thing; therefore he smote Israel. 1 Chr. 21:7 (KJV)

 

What the funny thing is, there is a similar passage in 2 Samuel 24:1, however, there is one major difference:

 

And again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah. 2 Sam. 24:1 (KJV) [emphasis mine]

 

Did you catch it? According to 2 Samuel, it was God Himself who provoked David to number Israel. Notice how the KJV translators misdirect in the translation of the word provoke here. The Hebrew of both verses are identical:

 

 

וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל | וַיָּסֶת אֶת דָּוִיד לִמְנוֹת אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל: 1 Chr. 21:1

 

וַיֹּסֶף אַף יְהוָה לַחֲרוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל | וַיָּסֶת אֶת דָּוִד בָּהֶם לֵאמֹר לֵךְ מְנֵה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת יְהוּדָה:  2 Sam. 24:1

 

The phrase of both verses is wayaset et david. Here yaset is the imperfect causative of sut meaning to provoke or incite. According to the former, it was Satan who caused the provocation, and in the later, it was God who caused the provocation. Which one is correct?

 

The answer is in the way the Hebrew scripture portrays God and Satan. It may be a surprise to you, but Satan is not the cause of evil, nor of temptation to evil. Who is? I am glad you asked.

 

According to the Hebrew scripture, God is the Creator, and there is none besides Him. He created everything, even evil. Let’s look at the proof.

 

I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me: That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the LORD, and there is none else. I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things. Isaiah 45:5-7 (KJV) [emphasis mine]

 

It is God who sets evil before us:

 

See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil Deuteronomy 30:15 (KJV)

 

It is God who causes evil in a city:

 

Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, and the people not be afraid? shall there be evil in a city, and the LORD hath not done it? Amos 3:6 (KJV)

 

Contrary to Christian theology, God is the creator of evil. He uses evil, and temps His servants with evil to see if they will follow Him with all their hearts:

 

If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder, And the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them; Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for the LORD your God proveth you, to know whether ye love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. Ye shall walk after the LORD your God, and fear him, and keep his commandments, and obey his voice, and ye shall serve him, and cleave unto him. Deuteronomy 13:1-4 (KJV) [emphasis mine]

 

The Hebrew for the word proveth is m’naseh, an intensive active participle of nasah meaning to tempt. This same word is translated tempt in Genisis 22:1:

 

And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am. Gn 22:1 (KJV) [emphasis mine]

 

Here is the Hebrew:

 

וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם | וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי:  Gn 22:1

 

לֹא תִשְׁמַע אֶל דִּבְרֵי הַנָּבִיא הַהוּא אוֹ אֶל חוֹלֵם הַחֲלוֹם הַהוּא | כִּי מְנַסֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם לָדַעַת הֲיִשְׁכֶם אֹהֲבִים אֶת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּכָל לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁכֶם: De. 13:3

 

The difference is in the conjugation. Both are of the piel verb. Gn 22:1 has the perfect form nisah and De. has the participle m’naseh.

 

God even sends false prophets for His own purpose:

 

And he said, Hear thou, therefore, the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left. And the LORD said, Who shall persuade Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramothgilead? And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner. And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the LORD, and said, I will persuade him. And the LORD said unto him, Wherewith? And he said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And he said, Thou shalt persuade him, and prevail also: go forth and do so. Now, therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets, and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee. 1 Kings 22:19-23; 2 Chr. 18:18-22 (KJV) [emphasis mine]

 

God even lies to His own prophets at times, testing their obedience:

 

And the man of God said unto the king, If thou wilt give me half thine house, I will not go in with thee, neither will I eat bread nor drink water in this place: For so was it charged me by the word of the LORD, saying, Eat no bread, nor drink water, nor turn again by the same way that thou camest. So he went another way and returned not by the way that he came to Bethel. Now there dwelt an old prophet in Bethel; and his sons came and told him all the works that the man of God had done that day in Bethel: the words which he had spoken unto the king, them they told also to their father. And their father said unto them, What way went he? For his sons had seen what way the man of God went, which came from Judah. And he said unto his sons, Saddle me the ass. So they saddled him the ass: and he rode thereon, And went after the man of God, and found him sitting under an oak: and he said unto him, Art thou the man of God that camest from Judah? And he said I am. Then he said unto him, Come home with me, and eat bread. And he said, I may not return with thee, nor go in with thee: neither will I eat bread nor drink water with thee in this place: For it was said to me by the word of the LORD, Thou shalt eat no bread nor drink water there, nor turn again to go by the way that thou camest. He said unto him, I am a prophet also as thou art; and an angel spake unto me by the word of the LORD, saying, Bring him back with thee into thine house, that he may eat bread and drink water. But he lied unto him. So he went back with him, and did eat bread in his house, and drank water. And it came to pass, as they sat at the table, that the word of the LORD came unto the prophet that brought him back: And he cried unto the man of God that came from Judah, saying, Thus saith the LORD, Forasmuch as thou hast disobeyed the mouth of the LORD, and hast not kept the commandment which the LORD thy God commanded thee, But camest back, and hast eaten bread and drunk water in the place, of the which the LORD did say to thee, Eat no bread, and drink no water; thy carcass shall not come unto the sepulcher of thy fathers. And it came to pass after he had eaten bread, and after he had drunk, that he saddled for him the ass, to wit, for the prophet whom he had brought back. And when he was gone, a lion met him by the way, and slew him: and his carcass was cast in the way, and the ass stood by it, the lion also stood by the carcass. 1 Kings 13:8-24 (KJV) [emphasis mine]

 

Throughout the Hebrew scripture, you will find that it is God Himself who created evil, and uses the evil as a means of testing and tempting His servants. He sends His angels out as lying spirits, and He sends lying prophets, even to His own prophets. There is no place that hints of an evil angel acting against His authority. On the contrary, the scripture is clear that His angel, and all angels are His, obey His word:

 

Bless the LORD, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word. Ps. 103:20 (KJV)

 

A better translation of the Hebrew would be:

בָּרֲכוּ יְהוָה מַלְאָכָיו | גִּבֹּרֵי כֹחַ עֹשֵׂי דְבָרוֹ לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקוֹל דְּבָרוֹ:

Bless the Lord His angels, excelling in strength, doing His word, listening to the voice of His words. Ps. 103:20 (my translation)

 

This leaves no room for angels who could be disobedient.

 

In the Hebrew text, the first time the word satan is used is in Numbers 22:22, 32. However, the KJV translators hide this point, so the reader would not make the logical connection:

 

And God’s anger was kindled because he went: and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against him. Now he was riding upon his ass, and his two servants were with him. Num. 22:22 KJV

 

וַיִּחַר אַף אֱלֹהִים כִּי הוֹלֵךְ הוּא וַיִּתְיַצֵּב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה בַּדֶּרֶךְ לְשָׂטָן לוֹ

וְהוּא רֹכֵב עַל אֲתֹנוֹ וּשְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו עִמּוֹ:  Num 22:22

 

And God’s anger was kindled because he went, and the angel of the Lord set himself in the way as a satan for him. And he was riding on his donkey and two young men were with him. Num. 22:22 (my translation)

 

 

And the angel of the LORD said unto him, Wherefore hast thou smitten thine ass these three times? behold, I went out to withstand thee because thy way is perverse before me: Num. 22:32 (KJV)

 

וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עַל מָה הִכִּיתָ אֶת אֲתֹנְךָ זֶה שָׁלוֹשׁ רְגָלִים | הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי יָצָאתִי לְשָׂטָן כִּי יָרַט הַדֶּרֶךְ לְנֶגְדִּי: Num 22:32

 

And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why did you strike your donkey these three times? Look, I set myself as a satan because the way is reckless before me. Num 22:32 (my translation)

 

The translators did not want you to draw the conclusion that even the angel of the Lord is called a satan.

 

Some point to the book of Job an example of a wicked satan. However, upon closer examination, you will see that satan is an agent of God, and is completely obedient to His word. You will also find that it was God Himself who told satan to do those things to Job, and he obeys his Lord. You can find this in the first two chapters of Job.

 

There is no place in all the Hebrew scriptures which supports the idea that satan acted independently of God’s authority. Nor will you find anything which would lend support to the idea that satan is some rebellious angel, who waged war in heaven, trying to supplant God. The concept of an independent evil spirit is foreign to the Hebrew scripture and the theology of Israel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part Two

The Greek Scriptures (New Testament)

 

Even a cursory reading of the Greek scriptures would be enough for the serious student to see how different the theology is concerning satan. We have seen that in the Hebrew scriptures, God is ultimately in control. He wields all authority in the heavenly realms and there is no trace of independent rebellious angels. We have seen that God sends lying spirits, and lying prophets as a test of our obedience.

 

However, in the Greek scriptures, you will find that satan acts independently of God’s authority. He is the origin of lies and is known as the tempter. You will also find that he wages a heavenly war against God and even causes the fall of a third of the heavenly host. Lets look at the texts.

 

The first encounter we have with satan, who is also identified as the devil, is in Matthew 4. This is the account of Jesus’ temptation in the wilderness.

 

According to the Greek scripture, satan or the devil has an independent will:

 

And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will. 2 Tim. 2:26 (KJV)

 

Was the father of lies and murder, and speaks lies by his own will:

 

Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar and the father of it. John 8:44 (KJV)

 

Is considered the enemy of God:

 

The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world, and the reapers are the angels. Matt. 13:39 (KJV)

 

Waged war in heaven and was cast out with a third of the heavenly host:

 

And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon fought and his angels, And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. Revelation 12:7-9 (KJV)

 

Has power over death:

Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil   Hebrews 2:14 (KJV)

 

Hell was prepared for him by God:

 

Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: Matt. 25:41 (KJV)

 

Will, in the end, be cast into a lake of fire:

 

And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are and shall be tormented day and night forever and ever. Revelation 20:10 (KJV)

 

The teachings of the Greek scripture is completely contrary to the theology of the Hebrew scripture. There are no references in the Hebrew text to support any of the claims of the New Testament. There are no angelic beings with independent will, nor who are disobedient to God. There is no mention of demons of any kind. There is no mention of a war in heaven between Michael and Satan where Satan is cast out with a third of the host. There is no mention of Satan having power over life or death. According to the Hebrew scripture, satan is an angel who is a servant of God and is completely obedient to His will.

 

The question now is, if the New Testament writers did not get their ideas about demons, satan and the devil from the Old Testament, where did they get them? That is a very good question and I am glad you asked.

Part Three

Satan In Egypt and Persia

 

 

  1. Egypt

 

 

In the Egyptian myths, there were many gods. The Egyptians worshiped numerous gods, and or combinations of them. One of these is Seth. Seth was the god of chaos. He was the god who brought death into the world.

 

Seth. The god of confusion, the spirit of disorder and personification of violence. and bad faith was nevertheless venerated as a god with whom one had to come to terms. Seth was also known as the god who brought death into the world. (Oxford Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology)

 

It was the union of Seth and Horus, through a homosexual act, that produced Thoth. Thoth is the god of writing. He is a part of a triunity of Ptah and Horus. Ptah being the divine father, Horus the divine spirit, and Thoth the divine word. (The Bestiary of Christ, Louis Charbonneau-Lassay)

 

It was because of the rebellion of Seth and the abominable acts perpetrated by him, that Thoth, the word of Ptah, came into being. This, in turn, created the first “holy trinity” of a divine Father, Word, and Spirit more than a thousand years before Jesus.

 

 

  1. Persia

 

 

 

After the fall of the Egyptian dynasties, first to the Greeks, and then to the Romans, the ancient religion of Persia was flourishing. A prophet named Zoroaster taught his people about the Creator. Here is what he taught them, see if you can notice any similarities with the New Testament theology.

Basic beliefs

There is one universal and transcendental God, Ahura Mazda, the one Uncreated Creator to whom all worship is ultimately directed.

Ahura Mazda’s creation—evident as asha, truth and order—is the antithesis of chaos, evident as druj, falsehood and disorder. The resulting conflict involves the entire universe, including humanity, which has an active role to play in the conflict.

Active participation in life through good thoughts, good words and good deeds is necessary to ensure happiness and to keep the chaos at bay. This active participation is a central element in Zoroaster’s concept of free will, and Zoroastrianism rejects all forms of monasticism.

Ahura Mazda will ultimately prevail over evil Angra Mainyu / Ahriman , at which point the universe will undergo a cosmic renovation and time will end (cf: Zoroastrian eschatology). In the final renovation, all of creation—even the souls of the dead that were initially banished to “darkness”—will be reunited in Ahura Mazda returning to life in the undead form. At the end of time a savior-figure [a Saoshyant] will bring about a final renovation of the world, and in which the dead will be revived.

There will then be a final purgation of evil from the Earth (through a tidal wave of molten metal) and a purgation of evil from the heavens (through a cosmic battle of spiritual forces). In the end, good will triumph and each person will find himself or herself transformed into a spiritualized body and soul. Those who died as adults will be transformed into healthy adults of forty years of age, and those who died young will find themselves permanently youthful, about age fifteen. In these new spiritual bodies, humans will live without food, without hunger or thirst, and without weapons (or the possibility of bodily injury). The material substance of the bodies will be so light as to cast no shadow. All humanity will speak a single language and belong to a single nation without borders. All will experience immortality (Ameretat) and will share a single purpose and goal, joining with the divine for a perpetual exaltation of God’s glory.

In Zoroastrian tradition, the malevolent is represented by Angra Mainyu (also referred to as “Ahriman”), the “Destructive Principle”, while the benevolent is represented through Ahura Mazda’s Spenta Mainyu, the instrument or “Bounteous Principle” of the act of creation. It is through Spenta Mainyu that transcendental Ahura Mazda is immanent in humankind, and through which the Creator interacts with the world. According to Zoroastrian cosmology, in articulating the Ahuna Vairya formula Ahura Mazda made His ultimate triumph evident to Angra Mainyu.

As expressions and aspects of Creation, Ahura Mazda emanated the Amesha Spentas (“Bounteous Immortals”), that are each the hypostasis and representative of one aspect of that Creation. These Amesha Spenta are in turn assisted by a league of lesser principles, the Yazatas, each “Worthy of Worship” and each again a hypostasis of a moral or physical aspect of creation (Wikipedia)

All of these principal beliefs can be found in the theological teaching of the New Testament. This is the origin of the twin spirits battling for supremacy. These teachings were incorporated into the New Testament, and are the basis for the modern teachings of satan.

Satan is the Mal’akh [Angel/Messenger] of YHWH

I laugh sometimes when I speak to the Christians; they hold that Satan is the antithesis and antagonist against YHWH. However, careful study of Tanakh will reveal to the reader that YHWH, the Mal’akh [messenger] of YHWH and Satan are all equated, meaning they are interchangeable in authority. The Mal’akh YHWH is Satan and the Holy Spirit and is the Angel with His Name.

The first time Mal’akh YHWH is used in Tenakh is in the narrative of Hagar fleeing Sarah, Gen 16. Notice what Mosheh records in verse 13:

וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם-יְהוָה הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ, אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי

And she called the Name of YHWH, the one speaking to her, You are the Deity Seeing me.
So in the first appearance of Mal’akh YHWH, he is equated with YHWH by Mosheh, who wrote the account.

The first time satan appears in Tenakh is in the narrative of Balaam, Num 22:22

וַיִּחַר-אַף אֱלֹהִים, כִּי-הוֹלֵךְ הוּא, וַיִּתְיַצֵּב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה בַּדֶּרֶךְ, לְשָׂטָן לוֹ; וְהוּא רֹכֵב עַל-אֲתֹנוֹ, וּשְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו עִמּוֹ

So Elohim’s anger was heated because he went, so the Mal’akh YHWH set himself up in the way as his satan, while he was riding upon his ass, and his two young men were with him.

Mosheh equates Mal’akh YHWH as satan in the first appearance of the word satan in Tenakh. Many translators and commentators try to force the meaning as “to withstand/oppose him”, however, the word satan is a noun in the verse. If the translation were indeed what the commentators and translators wish, the form would have been in the infinitive and pointed as לִשְׂטֹן liston, and not as לְשָׂטָן lesatan.

Even the writers of 2 Sam and 1 Chron equated YHWH and Satan:

וַיֹּסֶף, אַף-יְהוָה, לַחֲרוֹת, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל; וַיָּסֶת אֶת-דָּוִד בָּהֶם לֵאמֹר, לֵךְ מְנֵה אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת-יְהוּדָה.
Again, YHWH’s anger was heated against Israel, so He provoked (yasit) David against them saying, Go, number Israel and Judah 2 Sam 24:1

וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן, עַל-יִשְׂרָאֵל; וַיָּסֶת, אֶת-דָּוִיד, לִמְנוֹת, אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל.
So satan stood against Israel and he provoked (yasit) David to number Israel.

In Tenakh there is only one angel who is called Mal’akh YHWH, who is also called His Presence (Ex 23:20,23; 33:14), and his Holy Spirit (Isaiah 63:10), and this is the same angel who is the first and only identified as satan (Num 22:22, 32).

There is not one single place which records satan as being disobedient to YHWH, nor does Tenakh record any disobedient or fallen angels as the Christians suppose.

The Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton [יהוה]

The pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton [YHWH] has been hotly debated for the last two centuries. Many linguists, scholars, and theologians have tackled this topic with less than unanimous agreement on the pronunciation. For the most part, these great men have promoted pronunciations that were based upon, what they deemed, Theophoric names present in the Bible, upon the historical evidence of earlier scholars and theologians who were witnesses living closer in time to the ancient Israelite peoples of Canaan, or upon perceived scribal errors contained in the Masoretic Text─ even upon claims of revealed knowledge. None had, till now, attempted a purely grammatical approach to the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. There are several factors which can be used to deduce the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. There is textual evidence in the Bible which can be used to gain insights into the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. There is the fact that the verb root of the Tetragrammaton is an Aramaic verb and not a Hebrew verb. The use of the Tetragrammaton is restricted to the Hebrew portions and does not appear in any of the Aramaic portions of scripture. The use of the Lamed prefix in the book of Daniel is exclusively for the verb HaWaH הוה and can show the actual conjugation of the verb root of the Tetragrammaton as a Pa’al 3rdmasculine singular of HaWaH (הוה). Finally, there are inscriptions of the Tetragrammaton which can demonstrate the most ancient spelling of the Divine Name of the Israelites.

The Tetragrammaton is the name used in reference to the four letters used to write the name of God in the Hebrew text of the Bible. In the Hebrew Text, these letters were written as (יהוה), which would be rendered YHWH in English letters. This name was utilized some 6,823 times in the Hebrew text of the Bible (Brown-Driver-Briggs 217). The Tetragrammaton was pronounced by the Hebrew people in all areas of religious devotion, social contracts, greetings, and possibly curses, from the High Priest to the humble servant. The pronunciation began to decline after the ban was ordered by Antiochus IV Epiphanes around 168 BCE (Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah 18b). Finally, this pronunciation ceased due to the permanent ban by Abba Saul c. 150 CE (Nehemia Gordon, pg. 4). As a result of this ban, the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton is presumed to be lost.

The true pronunciation has always been considered of prime importance. As early as the fourth century CE, this Tetragrammaton was being pondered by the Greek Church. In his commentary on Exodus, Theodoret of Cyrus purported that the correct pronunciation was forbidden among the Jews who subsequently “pronounced it as IAO, but the Samaritans pronounced the name as IABE” (Theodoret, Questions on Exodus, XV). This has given rise to many interpretations surrounding the Tetragrammaton‘s pronunciation: the two most prevalent follows.

The Anglicized Jehovah is considered to be an 1100 CE invention based upon earlier texts of magical incantations (The Harvard Theological Review 318). This pronunciation was used in many Latin publications between 1200 and 1300 CE (Sir Godfrey Driver paragraph 7). In 1516, Peter Galatin, suggested the Tetragrammaton was often pronounced by Pope Leo X, to whom he was a penitentiary. According to Galatin, the Pope approved the pronunciation as JeHoVaH (De Arcanus Catholicae Veritatis, folio XLII). This was then promoted by Gilbert Genebrard (c. 1537-97 CE), a French Benedictine exegete and also the professor of Hebrew at the College Royal in Paris (Lang 207). By 1530, the Tetragrammaton passed into the English Bible translations as Iehouah, which was first used by William Tyndale (Tyndale, 1530, Tyndale Bible, Gen. 15:2). Today, this version of the Tetragrammaton is being hailed as the true and correct pronunciation by many Karaites, howbeit, corrected to be more Hebrew sounding- for instance Yehowah/Yehovah(Melech ben Ya’aqov, 2010). The influence of Karaites, such as Nehemia Gordon, has also led to the proclamation of Yehovah as the true pronunciation among the Christian movements (Johnson, 2010).

One of the most famous pronunciations of the Tetragrammaton is Yahweh. This name was promoted at large by Wilhelm Gesenius (Gesenius 337). Gesenius is regarded as one of the most influential Hebrew scholars of the 19th century; he published this opinion in his Lexicon which was widely used in Universities at the time and even late into the 20thcentury. Oddly, in his entry for YHWH (יהוה), he explained that he based his Yahwehpronunciation on the works of early commentators such as Theodoret rather than any sound rules of grammar. Nevertheless, this pronunciation was soon preferred and adopted by university elites worldwide. The fact of the matter is the Yahweh pronunciation, which is so prominent among the academic elites, was but a guess which requires a re-examination from a more reliable source: namely, the Masoretic Text itself.

One of the greatest hurdles which one must confront is whether or not the Tetragrammaton is a verb or a noun. This is not so easy to solve. On the one hand, the Tetragrammaton is derived from a Pa’al 1st and 3rd imperfect conjugation (Exodus 3, 14-15). On the other hand, the Tetragrammaton was used in construct forms and appeared with inseparable prepositions and very much resembles a noun. There are places where the YHWH is preceded by the emphatic 1st personal pronoun, Anoki, which seems a bit strange, because, if the Tetragrammaton were a verb, it would mean “I am He Is/Shall Be”. However, the usage of the emphatic personal pronoun along with a 3rd imperfect verb is also found in the early Semitic languages, such as Ugaritic, for monarchs. Looking at some of the constructions, such as Anoki YHWH eloheikha “I am He Is/Shall Be Your Deity” (Exodus 20, 2), the Tetragrammaton seems easily understandable as I am He Who Shall Be Your Deity. However, there are places where the emphatic personal pronoun Anoki was used with verbs, mainly participles, for instance in Exodus 34, 10, Anoki Kareith berith “I am cutting a covenant;” this pronoun was never used with a 3rd imperfect form, but with participles and 1st perfect forms.

To this day, the oldest known vocalized Aramaic text is found in the Masoretic Text of the Bible. Research of the Aramaic portions of the Masoretic Text has shown that the proper inflection for the 3rd imperfect conjugation of HWH was recorded in the books of Ezra and Daniel; YeHeWeA/H [יֶהֱוֵא] was how the 3rd imperfect was conjugated by the Masorete scribes in the pointing of this verb in the books of Ezra and Daniel (see Daniel 2,20 and 4, 22; Ezra 4, 12). In addition, further research on the Masoretic Text has demonstrated that when a name was formed upon a 3rd imperfect verb conjugation, the only change (from a verb to a noun) was in the final syllable. The final syllable, especially in the Lamed-He verbs, received a Qamets as opposed to the Seghol-He which was common for the final syllable in Lamed-He verbs, for example, the verb yishweh was changed to Yishwah in 1 Chronicles 7, 30 and the verb yishpeh was changed to Yishpah in 1 Chronicles 8, 16. Even in the Lamed-Guttural verbs, the normal Pathah was changed to a Qamets when forming a noun from the 3rd imperfect as was the case for the verb yiftach (with Pathah) in Deuteronomy 28, 12 which was changed to Yiftach (with Qamets) when it was used as a noun in Judges 11, 3. This demonstrates that if the Tetragrammaton were a noun, as opposed to a verb, then the final syllable would of necessity have a Qamets which is the norm for every other noun form based upon the 3rd imperfect in the Masoretic Text. Yet this conclusion is not tenable for the simple reason the YHWH retained the H in every instance in which it was in the construct. According to Hebrew grammar, any noun ending with a Qamets He would end with a Pathah Taw in the construct. On the other hand, any noun which ended with a Seghol He would end in a Tzere He in the construct. Obviously, this excludes any possibility that YHWH in the construct had an original Qamets He ending. Now the question arises, “What about the other vowels in the Tetragrammaton if it were a noun built upon the 3rd imperfect?”

If it is to be assumed that the Tetragrammaton was a noun based upon the 3rd imperfect form, then the next question should be, “How should the preceding syllables be inflected?” As explained above, if the Tetragrammaton was a noun, then the only changes should be in the final syllable as was demonstrated by other nouns derived from an imperfect 3rd. The syllabification of Hebrew nouns, as used by the Masoretic Tradition, is as follows: A) Short vowels prefer an open accented or a closed unaccented syllable, B) Long vowels, changeable or unchangeable, prefer closed accented, or open pre-tonic syllables, C) Hateph vowels prefer the pro-pre-tonic syllables containing the gutturals, D) Vocal Shewaprefers the pro-pre-tonic syllables containing consonants other than gutturals.

There is, however, another matter to consider; the presence of the gutturals Alef (א), He(ה), Chet (ח), Ayin (ע), and Resh (ר), as one of the stem radicals (the letters of the root), forces a change in the inflection that a syllable should take and also the vowels which should be used in the syllable containing the guttural. The rule to Pe-Gutturals states that Pa’al imperfect verbs which end in a Holem, begin with a Pathah or Qamets, while Pe-Gutturals which end in a Pathah begin with a Seghol (Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, Kennedy, page 146; Gesenius Hebrew Grammar, section 62-65); the verb ya’amod יַעֲמֹד follows this rule, but this isn’t the case for HaWaH. According to Gesenius and Kennedy, all Pe-Aspirants/LamedHe verbs will also begin with Seghol. This is why, even though Gesenius suggested the YaHWeH pronunciation (due to the Greek witnesses), he admitted that the actual conjugation of HWH, in the imperfect 3rd, was YeHeWeH [יֶהֱוֶה] (Gesenius’ Hebrew Lexicon page 247). An over-simplification of these rules are: 1) Gutturals prefer an “a” class vowel before and after, 2) Pa’al Imperfect Dynamic verbs prefer an “a” class vowel in the imperfect preformative prefix instead of the normal Hireq of the imperfect preformative prefix (yi), 3) Pa’al Imperfect verbs prefer a Seghol in the imperfect preformative prefix instead of the normal Hireq of the imperfect preformative prefix (yi), 4) The Hebrew verbs HYH (היה) and CHYH (חיה) were exceptions to these rules where the (yi) prefix was retained in the imperfect and the Pe-Guttural initial stem radical retained the silent Shewa.

Based on these rules, the 3rd imperfect verb HWH (הוה) becomes YeHeWeH (יֶהֱוֶה) when conjugated. This was demonstrated to be the case in the Aramaic conjugation of the 3rd imperfect of HWH (הוה) found in Daniel and Ezra. If, as explained above, the only difference between the 3rd imperfect verb and nouns which are built upon them was the change in the final syllable, then the Tetragrammaton should be inflected as a noun built upon the 3rd imperfect of HWH (הוה)- which should be YeHeWaH (יֶהֱוָה) as all the evidence of the Masoretic pointing demonstrated. The conjugation of the Hebrew HWH (הוה), then, as a verb in the 3rd imperfect is YeHeWeH (יֶהֱוֶה), while the inflection as a noun should be YeHeWaH (יֶהֱוָה). However, the use of YHWH in the construct demonstrated that since the final He was retained, the final syllable of YHWH must have retained the Seghol He.

It has been suggested by some etymologists, that the Tetragrammaton may have the vowels which are found in names such as [יְרֹהָם] Yeroham (1 Samuel 1,1). Yeroham was built upon the noun form of a pu’al conjugation: yeruham (יְרֻחַם). The evident changes in the pu’al derived noun was the Holem and Qamets as opposed to the QibbutsPathah in the verb. This inflection should seem very strange for the Tetragrammaton because this conjugation is passive and would give the meaning of YeHoWaH as (He Was Made to Be); this would demand that the deity of Israel had a beginning.

The vowels of YHWH, which were utilized in the Bible, were specifically used to represent that the Tetragrammaton was to be pronounced as either Adonai or Elohim. When YHWH stood alone, the vowels of Adonai were transposed upon the Tetragrammaton. When, however, the Tetragrammaton preceded or followed Adonai, the vowels of Elohim were transposed upon the Tetragrammaton. This is proven by the different vowels which are found upon the Tetragrammaton, as well as the usage of these vowels in relation to how near YHWH was to Adonai. In the Bible, the following vowels were used in connection with YHWH: יְהֹוָה (Y’howah) used a total of 29 times, יֱהוִה (Yehwih) used a total of 304 times; יֱהֹוִה (Yehowih) used only once in Judges 16:28; יְהֹוִה (Y’howih) used a total of 23 times, יְהוִה (Y’hwih) used a total of 207 times, and יְהוָה (Y’hwah) used a total of 6, 268 times

In a search performed of the Bible, for words which had a He-Waw-Hireq combination, it was found that- in the entire Bible- the only word which used the He-Waw-Hireq (הוִ) was the Tetragrammaton YHWH. In every instance, the Tetragrammaton was either preceded by or followed by Adonai. There was one instance which proved extremely interesting; in Psalm 68, 21, the Tetragrammaton had not only the conjunction but an inseparable preposition and is written weleiHWiH (וְלֵיוִה). This is interesting because, in this instance, the Tetragrammaton preceded Adonai. Naturally, this should mean that YHWH should carry the vowels of Elohim. The presence of the inseparable preposition L’(לְ) with the Tzere demonstrated that this was the case. In Hebrew grammar, there is a special rule for prefixing inseparable prepositions to Elohim; instead of the normal vocal Shewa, which the prepositions normally take, when they are prefixed to Elohim, the preposition takes a Tzere and the Aleph is quiescent. The similar is the case when prefixing a preposition to Adonai only, in that case, the preposition normally takes a Pathah as opposed to the vocal Shewa. When, however, the inseparable prepositions M (מְ), SH (שְׁ), and the article H (הָ) are used, the Aleph of Adonai is not quiescent, but is audible-that is, the aleph is pronounced. This was demonstrated in every case that a preposition is prefixed to YHWH when the Tetragrammaton stands alone; the preposition always takes a Pathah with the Yodh having no pointing which indicated the quiescent nature of the Aleph- except in those places where the M (מְ), SH (שְׁ), and the H (הָ) were used (Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar § 102) . In those cases, the Yodh of YHWH took a vocal Shewa which indicated the vocal nature of the Aleph in Adonai. Places in the Bible where this was demonstrated are: Genesis 47, 18 where it read MeiAdonai (מֵֽאֲדֹנִ֔י) and Genesis 18, 14 where it read MeiYeHWaH (מֵיְהוָ֖ה); Psalm 144, 15 where it read SheYaHWaH (שֶׁיֲהוָ֥ה); and Psalm 136, 3 where the article was used and it read HaAdonim (הָאֲדֹנִ֑ים).

Another rule for inseparable prepositions, as well as the conjunction Waw, concerns the prefixing of these propositions to a word which had a vocal Shewa as the first radical, for instance, Yehudah. When, in these cases, an inseparable preposition was prefixed to these words, the prefix took a Hireq and the Yodh was assimilated to the Hireq. This means that the vocal Shewa was never pronounced. When a preposition was prefixed to Yehudah, for instance, L’ (לְ), it became LiHudah and not LiYehudah. This was never the case with YHWH; in every instance, the preposition took a Pathah. This provides proof positive that the vowels used by the Masoretic Text on YHWH were the vowels of Adonai and Elohim transposed upon the YHWH and that these vowels do not, in any way, represent any possible pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton as it appears in the Masoretic Text. This shows that the Masoretes were simply abiding by the rabbinical ordinance in an attempt to prevent the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton by anyone reading the Bible.

What this really demonstrated was that the vowels of YHWH, as is presently found in the Masoretic Text, cannot represent the Tetragrammaton as a noun which would conform to the Hebrew rules of noun syllabification. The reason that the Tetragrammaton appeared in construct forms and with prepositions, and etc. is because the Tetragrammaton represented the words Adonai and Elohim. In those places where YHWH was used in the construct, for instance, YHWH TsevaothYHWH always took a Qamets in the final syllable; this clarified, to the reader, that YHWH was to be pronounced as Adonai and so the reader would read Adonei Tseva’oth (אֲדֹנֵי צְבָאֹות). A great example of this is found in 1 Samuel 1,3 where the phrase was prefixed with a preposition; true to the Masoretic Text tradition of the use of inseparable prefixes with YHWH, there is a Pathah on the proposition which identified the YHWH was indeed to be read as Adonai. The result was that, in this place, the phrase was to be read as Ladonei Tsevaoth (לַאדֹנֵי צְבָאֹות); the Pathahnaturally caused the Aleph to become quiescent. Based upon this information, it is entirely plausible that the phrase originally could have been YeHeWeH Elohei Tsevaoth (יֶהֱוֵה אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאֹות) as it was found in places such as Psalm 89, 9. This must be the case as explained above concerning YHWH in the construct. According to Hebrew grammar, nouns ending in Seghol He ה ֶ have a singular construct form with a Tzere He ה ֵ. An example of this is found in Genesis 1:10. There we have the word miqweh [מִקְוֶה] used in the construct as miqweh ha-arets [מִקְוֵה הָאָרֶץ]- the latter having the expected Tzere He. Since YHWH was used in construct forms without the change of the He to Taw it is reasonable to conclude that YHWH originally ended with a Seghol He and not a Qamets He- in which case it would always result in a YHWT Tseva’oth or YHWT Elohim, etc.

The Tetragrammaton first appears in the Biblical text in Genesis 2:4; from this point, the Tetragrammaton was given various vowels─all of which seem, at first glance, to be random. As explained above, the various vowel patterns, as they are currently found in the Westminster Leningrad Codex and the number of occurrences, are: יֱהֹוִה (1), יֱהוִה (2), יְהֹוִה (29), יְהֹוָה (39), יְהוִה (266), and יְהוָה (5,253) totaling 5,590 occurrences of the Tetragrammaton with 5 vowels and 6 vowel patterns (Leningrad Codex). The only answer for the variation of these vowel patterns is that the vowels, as listed in the Hebrew Text, are not the original vowels for the Tetragrammaton. According to the Rabbis, though the Tetragrammaton was written as YHWH (יהוה), it was to be read as Adonai אדני (Babylonian Talmud, Chapter 3, page 50). It has already been demonstrated that the Tetragrammaton is indeed supplied with the vowels of Adonai in those places it stands alone or is not is a close position to another Adonai in the text. In those places where the Tetragrammaton followed Adonai in the text or was in close proximity to Adonai, it was supplied with the vowels of Elohim (אלהים). In all cases, the Holem was the constant, as this vowel appears in both Adonai and Elohim in the second syllable. It could reasonably be argued that the Tetragrammaton does not contain the vowels of Adonai or Elohim, because the first vowel is, in the majority of cases, a vocal Shewa. This is easily overcome by the fact that in Adonai and Elohim the first letter is an Alef (א). According to convention, the gutturals in the propretonic position take a hatef vowel and the non-guttural letters in the propretonic position take a vocal Shewa (Pratico, Pelt, 2001).

The meaning of the Tetragrammaton is explained in the Hebrew text as EHYeH asher EHYeH אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה (Bible, Exodus 3,14). This is not the name of God, but the meaning of His name. In the next clause, He commands Moses to tell the Israelites “EHYeH אֶהְיֶה sent me” (ibid.). That EHYeH is the 1st imperfect singular of the verb HaYaH הָיָה , there is no doubt. The real problem to the pronunciation comes with the following verse. In this place, the 1st imperfect verb אֶהְיֶה is changed to יהוה (ibid. 3,15). This is beyond doubt an imperfect verb. The initial Yodh, then, is the prefix for the imperfect 3rd. The final Seghol He is a vowel letter and is not part of the root. What is left is HW הו , which clearly identifies the root as HaWaH הָוָה . HaWaH is the Aramaic verb and is used in much the same way as the HaYaH is used in Hebrew. That HaWaH is not essentially Hebrew is made clear by the limited occurrences in the Hebrew text. In the Pa’al 3rd imperfect, this verb is used exclusively for the Tetragrammaton of the Israelite’s deity, the only exception being Ecclesiastes 11,3. On the other hand, this verb is never used for the deity of Israel in any of the Aramaic portions of the Bible.

The inseparable prepositions, which are attached to the Tetragrammaton, are a tell-tale sign that the vowels upon the Tetragrammaton are not the original vowels; they indicate very precisely the opposite. In all cases in which the Tetragrammaton carries an inseparable preposition, the vowel patterns are for the pronunciation of either Adonai or Elohim. If YeHoWaH were the true pronunciation, which would be based upon only one vowel pattern found for the Tetragammaton, the prepositions would always take a Hireq─ in every case; the Hireq is used with these prepositions when preceding a Yodh with a vocal Shewa. The Leningrad Codex demonstrates that this was never the case, such as the following example found in Deuteronomy 29,28: הַ֨נִּסְתָּרֹ֔ת לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ hanistaroth laYHWaH eloheinu. This makes it clear that the scribes trans-positioned the vowels of Adonai onto the Tetragrammaton. In this passage the Lamed was prefix with the Patach; this would only happen if the Tetragrammaton was to be pronounced as Adonai─ which was the rule when the Tetragrammaton was in close proximity to Elohim. If it were to be pronounced with a vocal Shewa, then the Lamed prefix would take a Hireq. However, it was to be pronounced as patach before a Hateph patach (the vowel which is upon the Aleph in Adonai), so the Lamed naturally takes the patach. A great example of how the Lamedprefixed to Adonai takes a patach vowel is Genesis 18, 30 which reads: וַ֠יֹּאמֶר אַל־ןָ֞א יִ֤חַר לַֽאדֹנָי֙ wayomer al-na yihar lAdonai.

Another example is found in Deuteronomy 33,7 of the Leningrad Codex how a Lamedprefix upon a word containing a vocal Shewa in the Yodh of the first syllable. In this case, it is Yehudah. The verse reads: וְזֹ֣את לִֽיהוּדָה֮ wezoth lihudah ; here the Lamed has a Hireq while the Yodh quiesces. This would be the same case for the Tetragrammaton if it had a vocal Shewa upon the Yodh in the first syllable. However, the Lamed prefixing the Tetragrammaton in the Text never carries a Hireq, which shows the Yodh was never pronounced, with vocal Shewa or otherwise.

The next example is Psalm 68,20 וְלֵיהוִ֥ה אֲדֹנָ֑י weleYHWiH Adonai. In this verse, the Lamed prefix of the Tetragrammaton takes a Tzere, which is the case when the Tetragrammaton was to be pronounced as Elohim. It is so in this case because the Tetragrammaton is in close proximity to Adonai in the Text. Normally, the Lamed prefix would take a Seghol when it precedes a Hateph Seghol (the vowel which is used on the Aleph of Elohim), however, there is a special rule when Lamed is prefixed to Elohim─ in this case, it would always take a Tzere and not a Seghol. It should be noticed, in addition, that the vowels of the Tetragrammaton have the vowels of Elohim. When Elohim was prefixed with Lamed, as the Tetragrammaton is, then Elohim would be vocalized with Lamed TzereHolem, and Hireq which is evidenced by Genesis 17,7 לִהְיֹ֤ות לְךָ֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים  lihyoth lekha leilohim. 
All these examples clearly show how the scribes interpolated the vowels of Adonai and Elohim upon the Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Text. There were five vowels used in 6 vowel patterns by the scribes; none were meant to be the true vowels of the Tetragrammaton but were interpolated vowels. Anytime the vowel pattern demonstrated a Qamets in the final syllable it was to be pronounced Adonai; while anytime it demonstrated a Hireq in the final syllable it was to be pronounced Elohim. It was for this reason that using any vocalization of the Tetragrammaton based upon the current vowel patterns found in the Masoretic Text is incorrect. These vocalizations are false patterns which were used only to aid the reader as to which way the Tetragrammaton was to be pronounced.

Based upon the meaning given to the Tetragrammaton by God in Exodus 3:14, the Tetragrammaton is a verb. Knowing the root of the Tetragrammaton, it is clear to see that there is no difference in meaning or function from HaYaH. Both are verbs in the imperfect conjugation. In acknowledgment of this, the conjugation of HaWaH in the 3rd imperfect should naturally be valid. When a guttural closes an unstressed syllable, the preceding vowel will be Seghol in place of the Hireq, and the vowel after the guttural would take a Hateph in the place where a non-guttural would take a Shewa. Since the vowel preceding the guttural would be Seghol, in place of Hireq, then the Hateph must be Hateph Seghol. Hence you would have YeHeWeH יֶהֱוֶה instead of YiHWeH יִהְוֶה. (Muraoka, 2011, pg. 79). In the case of HaYaH היה and CHaYaH חיה , these verbs have an irregular pattern as compared to other I-Guttural verbs, therefore, the Hireq is retained (Bickell, 1877, page 92 section 123).

There is also the word of Gesenius- who influenced so many with his proposition of YaHWeH. He writes in his lexicon, under the entry for the Hebrew הָוָה, as well as that of the Aramaic/Chaldee HaWaH הֲוָה, that the imperfect form would be YeHeWeH יֶהֱוֶה (Gesenius, 1846, pg. 219). Yet he rejects the sound rules of grammar for a pronunciation which is never attested in any of the Semitic languages in which HaWaH is employed and where YHWH was not held as a divine Tetragrammaton (Beitzel, 1980, pg. 18).

Aside from the lexicographers and grammarians of Biblical Hebrew, there is the Biblical text itself, which is a witness delivered to us by the Masoretic scribes. When the Aramaic portions of the Bible were being recorded, the lack of another copular verb other than HaWaH presented a problem for them. The scribes knew there was a ban upon the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton─evidently the Pe’al 3rd imperfect of HaWaH (הֲוָה) ─which grammatically would conjugate as YeHeWeiA  יֶהֱוֵא in the Aramaic. This pronunciation is almost indistinguishable from the Hebrew conjugation YeHeWeH יֶהֱוֶה . The spelling variation itself poses no real difference in meaning as the final TzereAlef in Aramaic is a vowel letter much like the Seghol-He in the Hebrew. In the only place in the Hebrew text where the Pa’al 3rd imperfect of HaWaH is employed, the verb is apocopated from YeHeWeH יֶהֱוֶה and spelled YeHuA יְהוּא (Gesenius, 1865, pg. 219).

The solution the Masoretic scribes settled upon was to invent a new Pe’al 3rd imperfect prefix for the verb HaWaH הֲוָה . In the place of the pre-formative Yodh, which is normally employed in the 3rd imperfect, the scribes substituted a Lamed Seghol; the normal YeHeWeiA  יֶהֱוֵא then becomes LeHeWeiA לֶהֱוֵא (Bible, Daniel 4:45). This Lamed prefix is an invention specifically for the HaWaH verb in the 3rd imperfect (Gesenius, 1865, pg. 219; Greenspahn, 2007, pgs. 79, 119). Though the Lamed prefix is attested in Rabbinic Aramaic, as well as later dialects such as Syriac and Mandaic, in Biblical Aramaic, it was exclusive for the verb HaWaH (Greenspahn, 2007, pg. 119).
The Masoretic scribes knew that the verb HaWaH, as used in Daniel, would need to be pronounced because, in these places, the verb did not represent the Tetragrammaton. The verb would have been vocalized by many readers of the Aramaic portion which would cause them to violate the ban by default. As a solution, they needed to change only the prefix which gave the verb a different inflection, thereby, preventing anyone from violating the ban on the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. In the Hebrew portions, it was sufficient to use the Aramaic YHWH in place of the Hebrew YHYH, as HWH is not a Hebrew verb and is rarely seen in the Hebrew text. However, the verb HYH does not exist in the Biblical Aramaic, so the scribes were forced to invent the Lamed prefix.

Soleb

In Soleb, Egypt, there is a temple which was constructed by Amenhotep III around 1400-1360 BCE. In this temple, he had names of enemies inscribed upon the base of the temple’s pillars. On one of these pillars- on the northern side- was an inscription which read tꜣ. shꜣ su. YHwꜣ- literally, the land [tꜣ] of the nomads [shꜣsu] of [YHwꜣ]. The final compliment in the inscription is considered a toponym. It is of interest to note that the YHwꜣ in the inscription was spelled with the phonetic signs YHW.jpg which indicated the phonetic signs for Y [ YY ], H [ H], and the biliteral phonetic sign wꜣ which represented two phonetic sound- W [ W ] and the glottal stop [ A], which is known as the Semitic Alef [א]. This, in fact, represented the Aramaic conjugation of the name YHWH- יֶהֱוֵא. This is significant in the fact that Hebrew, as a distinct dialect of Cana’anite, did not begin to emerge until the time of the early kings of Israel- between 1200 and 500 BCE. Abraham migrated to Cana’an from Mesopotamia- the land of the Arameans; Jacob spent more than 20 years with his uncle Laban, the Aramean before returning to Cana’an; all of his children- except Benjamin- were born in Aramaea. For this reason, during the ceremony of the first fruits, the Israelites were commanded to recite, “My father was a perishing Aramean, so he went to Egypt with a few men and there he became a great many” (Deuteronomy 26:5). The inscription of Amenhotep III represented a time when the Israelites were still Arameans and spoke Aramaic. This inscription predated the Mesha Stele by about 500 years.

In conclusion, the great Hebrew scholars Gesenius, Muraoka, Bickell and their associates demonstrated the rules which govern the conjugation of HaWaH as YeHeWeH. The great lexicographers have followed suit (Davies, 1879, pg. 160; Harkavy, 1914, pg. 119; Lee, 1840, pg. 151; Riggs, 1858, pg. 129). The Aramaic text of Daniel was unequivocal that the conjugation of the verb HaWaH is YeHeWeA/H (יֶהֱוֵא/ה) the Hebrew equivalent being YeHeWeH (יֶהֱוֶה). The earliest inscription of the Tetragrammaton also demonstrated the Aramaic spelling. The grammatical rules are the only solution to what the possibilities are in regard to the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. It has been clearly demonstrated that the current vowels upon the Tetragrammaton are not the proper vowels for it, but are transposed form Adonai and Elohim. Further, it has been explained how Biblical names which were built upon a 3rd imperfect Pa’al changed inflection only in the last syllable, this is especially clear of the Lamed–He verbs. It has been further established that YHWH must have been originally vocalized with a final Seghol He- otherwise the final He would need be a final Taw in the construct. According to the vocalizations provided by the Masoretes, there are two possibilities for the Tetragrammaton; one possibility is the Tetragrammaton is a noun, the other possibility is that it is a verb. As a noun, following the pattern of nouns found in the Masoretic Text, the Tetragrammaton would be YeHeWeH (יֶהֱוֶה); as a verb, it will be conjugated according to the pattern found in the Aramaic portions of Ezra and Daniel as YeHeWeA/H (יֶהֱוֵא/ה). The former must be the logical choice as the YHWH construct forms are not tenable with a Qamets He ending, but are with a Seghol He ending.  In light of this research, it is the opinion of the author that the pronunciation of YHWH has never been lost, only discouraged and prohibited.

The Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton [ההגייה שׁל שׁם בן ארבע אותיות] at www.akademia.edu

 

Works Cited

Bickell, Curtis. Outlines of Hebrew Grammar. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhause, 1877

Beitzel, Barry J. “Exodus 3:14 and the Divine Tetragrammaton: A Case of Biblical Paranomasia”. Trinity Journal, 1 NS, 1980, 5-20, page 18.

Ben Ya’aqov, Melech. “The Tetragrammaton of Elohim (God): Yehowah or Yehovah?”, Karaite Insights, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2uaZ4NgLk0&feature=g-user-u

Brown-Driver-Briggs. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., September, 2005.

Cook, Holmstedt. Ancient Hebrew A Student Grammar. Wilmore, Kentucky: Cook-Holmestedt, November, 15, 2007.

Davidson, Samuel. A Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament. Leipzig: Williams & Norgate, 1885.

Davies, Benjamin. A Compendious and Complete Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament. Andober: Waren F. Draper, 1879.

Driver, Sir Godfrey. Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Galatin, Peter. De Arcanus Catholicae Veritatis (Concerning Secrets of the Universal Truth). 1518.

Gesenius, Wilhelm. Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament. London: Bagster and Sons, 1846.

Gordon, Nehemia. “The Ban on the Divine Tetragrammaton”, The Karaite Korner, http://messianicfellowship.50webs.com/ban.html

Greenspahn, Frederick E. An Introduction to Aramaic. Atlanta: The Society of Biblical Literature, 2007.

Harkavy, Alexander. Students’ Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary to the Old Testament. New York: The Hebrew Publishing Company, 1914.

Johnson, Keith. His Hallowed Tetragrammaton Revealed Again. Biblical Foundations Press, November, 1, 2009.

Jouon, Muraoka. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Gregorian & Biblical Press, 2011.

Lang, Bernhard. The Hebrew God A Portrait of an Ancient Deity. London: Yale University Press, 2002.

Lee, Samuel. A Lexicon, Hebrew, Chaldee, and English. London: Duncan and Malcolm, 1840.

Leningrad Codex, Firkovich B19A, Russian National Library, 1008 CE.

Pratico, Van Pelt. Basics of Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapid: Zondervan, 2007.

Riggs, Elias. A Manual of the Chaldee Language. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph & Co., 1858.

Rodkinson, Michael L. Babylonian Talmud. Boston: The Talmud Society, 1918.

Theodoret of Cyrus. The Questions on the Octateuch. Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 2007.

The Harvard Theological Review, 1995, vol. 88, No. 3, page 318.

All photographs. The Aleppo Codex, http://www.aleppocodex.org/

A New Hebrew Course, Bowman page 433

Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon page 219

Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon page 219

Palestinian Aramaic, Stevenson page 49

The Verbal System of the Aramaic of Daniel, Tsaree Li page 126

The Verbal System of the Aramaic of Daniel, Tsaree Li page 127