The Poison that is Pharisaic Judaism—the forerunner of Rabbinic Judaism

The Sadducees came to power during the days of the Maccabees–who were a family of Kohanim that defeated the Greek attempt to Hellenize Israel. While often maligned by Rabbinic mythology, the Sadducees fought hard against Hellenization.

The Hasmonean Kingdom was sympathetic to the Sadducees as the rightful authority of the Temple and the Torah–which proves that the Sadducees were not Greek sympathizers as it was the Sadducees under the Maccabees that withstood the Hellenization of Israel.

The Hasmoneans remained loyal to the Sadducess until the time of John Hyrcanus; Hyrcanus was pressured by the Pharisees to relinquish his position as Kohen Gadol on the grounds that the Kohen Gadol should be a religious leader but not a secular one–thus exposing their earliest attempts to undermine the Kohanic rule in Israel. Hyrcanus left a will that appointed his wife as the civil ruler while his son Judas Aristobulus was made Kohen Gadol.

Judas Aristobulus became the first king of Israel since the destruction of the monarchy by the Babylonians; he was also a Kohen Gadol and thus was the first to combine the two titles. While the Sadducees were not concerned with the idea of a Kohen being a King, the Pharisees were infuriated by this and began to seek the overthrow of Sadduceean control.

Judas Aristobulus married Salome Alexandra who was the daughter of the Pharisee Shetah Bar Yossei and the brother of Simeon ben Shetah who was the first Pharisee to oust the Sadducees from the Sanhedrin. Judas died from an unknown stomach ailment–which was probably poison.

Salome Alexandra then married Judas Aristobulus’ brother Alexander Jannaeus. Alexander was a staunch Sadducee and under his rule, the Pharisees launched an open rebellion. At Alexader’s death, his two sons–both of whom were supported by the Pharisees because they were the grandsons of Simeon ben Shetah–began a civil war over the Kehunah and rule of Israel; as a result, they both appealed to Rome to intercede. Commenting on this, Josephus made the following comments

“NOW Alexander left the kingdom to Alexandra his wife, and depended upon it that the Jews would now very readily submit to her, because she had been very averse to such cruelty as he had treated them with, and had opposed his violation of their laws, and had thereby got the good-will of the people. Nor was he mistaken as to his expectations; for this woman kept the dominion, by the opinion that the people had of her piety; for she chiefly studied the ancient customs of her country, and cast those men out of the government that offended against their holy laws. And as she had two sons by Alexander, she made Hyrcanus the elder high priest, on account of his age, as also, besides that, on account of his inactive temper, no way disposing him to disturb the public. But she retained the younger, Aristobulus, with her as a private person, by reason of the warmth of his temper.

And now the Pharisees joined themselves to her, to assist her in the government. These are a certain sect of the Jews that appear more religious than others, and seem to interpret the laws more accurately. low Alexandra hearkened to them to an extraordinary degree, as being herself a woman of great piety towards God. But these Pharisees artfully insinuated themselves into her favor by little and little, and became themselves the real administrators of the public affairs: they banished and reduced whom they pleased; they bound and loosed [men] at their pleasure; (4) and, to say all at once, they had the enjoyment of the royal authority, whilst the expenses and the difficulties of it belonged to Alexandra. She was a sagacious woman in the management of great affairs, and intent always upon gathering soldiers together; so that she increased the army the one half, and procured a great body of foreign troops, till her own nation became not only very powerful at home, but terrible also to foreign potentates, while she governed other people, and the Pharisees governed her.”

War of the Jews Book 1 Chapter 5:1-2

Both the Sadducees and the Essense rejected the notion of the Pharisaic traditions being the Oral Torah delivered to Moses at Sinai; because of this, and the Pharisaic notion that only a descendant of David was allowed to be King–which is completely contrary to the Torah–the Pharisees devised the overthrow of the Hasmonean dynasty and the Sadduceean rule–which ultimately was accomplished by inviting the Romans into Israel and culminated in the total destruction of the Second Temple and the exile of the Israelites for nearly 2,000 years.

Everyone who buys into Rabbinic Judaism also lends support to those directly responsible for the destruction of the Priesthood, the Temple and sacrificial system—without which we remain impure and guilty of sin—and the exile of the Israelites just to have their own Oral Torah reign supreme of Israel.

According to the Wikipedia article on the Pharisees

“According to Josephus, the Pharisees appeared before Pompey asking him to interfere and restore the old priesthood while abolishing the royalty of the Hasmoneans altogether.[28] Pharisees also opened Jerusalem’s gates to the Romans, and actively supported them against the Sadducean faction.[29] When the Romans finally broke the entrance to the Jerusalem’s Temple, the Pharisees killed the priests who were officiating the Temple services on Saturday.[30] They regarded Pompey’s defilement of the Temple in Jerusalem as a divine punishment of Sadducean misrule. Pompey ended the monarchy in 63 BCE and named Hyrcanus II high priest and ethnarch (a lesser title than “king”).[31] Six years later Hyrcanus was deprived of the remainder of political authority and ultimate jurisdiction was given to the Proconsul of Syria, who ruled through Hyrcanus’s Idumaean associate Antipater, and later Antipater’s two sons Phasael (military governor of Judea) and Herod (military governor of Galilee). In 40 BCE Aristobulus’s son Antigonus overthrew Hyrcanus and named himself king and high priest, and Herod fled to Rome.”

Search for the Original Israelite Paternal Line

Family Tradition can be altered; Yichusim can be faked or forged; DNA is irrefutable.

According to the official Karaite Hakham outside of Israel, Meir Rekhavi

Meir Rekhavi

Who decides what a Paternal Jewish Line is? These are all 100% Paternal Lines of the Y Chromosome– which cannot be faked. These men, in each of their groups [J1, J2, and E1b] all share the exact same Paternal Line.


Paternal Jewish Line J1


Paternal Jewish Line


Paternal Jewish Line E


“In the search for indicators of the Israelite ancestry of Crimean Karaites it would be considered more relevant when they match Ashkenazim by Y-DNA as opposed to mtDNA since the mtDNA lineages of Ashkenazim show substantial European admixture and even traces of South Chinese, North Asian, and North African ancestries in some families whereas the Y-DNA of Ashkenazim is much more frequently of West Asian origin, including Levantine ancestry held in common with peoples like the Samaritans, Syrians, Lebanese, and Druze.”
Kevin Alan BROOK

In this genetic study, there were 20 men which produced Y DNA results; of these, 4 [20%] were positive for the J1 haplogroup, 6 [30%] were positive for the J2 haplogroup, 4 [20%] were positive for the E1b1 haplogroup, and 6 [30%] were from the haplogroups G [3 persons], L2a [1 person], R1b1 [1 person] and Q1b1 [1 person].

According to the following genetic study performed, 12 men of the 4 Samaritan families were tested for their Paternal Y Chromosome lineages. Of these, 4 were from the Sedaka family [tracing their lineage to Menashe], 4 were from the Joshua-Marhiv family [tracing their lineage to Ephraim], 2 were from the Danfi family [also tracing their lineage to Ephraim] and 2 were from the Cohen family [tracing their line to Levi].

Of these four families, the Sedaqa [Menashe] and Danfi [Ephraim] lines were positive for J2 [50%], while the Joshua-Marhiv [Ephraim] family was positive for J1 [33%] and the Cohen family was positive for E1b1b [16%].

Genetics and the History of the Samaritans: Y-Chromosomal
Microsatellites and Genetic Afinity between Samaritans and

It is interesting to note that both the Samaritan and Karaites hold strictly to Paternal descent. If we combine these two groups, we have the following percentages.

Of the 32 men tested- representing 23 paternal lines [19 Karaite and 4 Samaritan]
37.5% J2
25% J1
18.75% E1b1b

It is also interesting to note that there were absolutely no other haplogroups outside J1, J2 and E1b1b found among the Samaritan community and only 1 person from each of the L2a, R1b1, and Q1b1 haplogroups [each representing 3%] and 3 from the G haplogroups [representing 9%] were found among the Karaites.

In a search for the original paternal line of the Israelites, it can be a safe assumption that the original line is one of these three- J1, J2, or E1b1b. It is, however, possible, that there was no such persons as Abraham, Isaac or Jacob and that the Israelites were an amalgamation of the peoples expelled from Egypt known as the Hyksos [which is the claim of many modern Israeli archealogists].

to be continued…

I Want/Intend to Make for Him a Helper Genesis 2:18

          A very profound statement that I wish to discuss. I would love to hear your opinions as to the meaning of this pasuq

וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֔ים לֹא־טֹ֛וב הֱיֹ֥ות הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְבַדֹּ֑ו אֶֽעֱשֶׂהּ־לֹּ֥ו עֵ֖זֶר כְּנֶגְדֹּֽו׃

Genesis 2:18

          There are two primary parts to this pasuq [verse]. The first part ends with לבדו levaddo [by himself] and the second part ends with כנגדו keneghdo [as his opposite]. The first part began with a consecutive imperfect verb ויאמר wayYomer [then he said] and the second part began with a volitional imperfect- specifically, the cohortative אעשׂה e’eseh [I want/intend to make]; this latter verb is conjuncted to the prepositional phrase לו lo [for him] by the maqqef [a hyphen] which indicated the indirect object of the volitional verb [I want/intend to make].
          While the first part of the verse began with a consecutive imperfect, there is no definite direct object of the verb [then he said]. On the contrary, the entire clause לא־טוב היות האדם לבדו lo-tov heyoth ha-Adham levaddo [it is not good that the human being should be alone] is an independent clause and is, therefore, the direct object of the verb. The dependent clause היות האדם heyoth ha-adham is not the primary point of the independent clause itself- rather the prepositional phrase לבדו levaddo [alone] is. We can remove the relative clause out and the phrase would still contain the main meaning of the negating element [Then YHWH Elohim said, alone is not good].
          The second part of the verse explains the corrective course of action which YHWH intended to remedy the problem that the human was alone. The primary focus of the intention was upon the noun עזר ezer [help] which is the direct object of the verb אעשׂה e’eseh [I want/intend to make] while the indirect object is the prepositional phrase לו lo [for him]. It is clear that the primary intention of YHWH was to make for the human a helper. The final prepositional phrase, then, expresses the function of the direct object which YHWH intended to make for the human כנגדו keneghdo [as his opposite].
          At no time did YHWH express an intention to make an equal for the man, but a helper. This is important because many assume that the woman was an equal to the man and, somehow, lost this equality when she ate from the forbidden fruit. That opinion, however, is not tenable from the context of Genesis 1-3.
          While it is true that YHWH stated that both the man and woman had rule over the creatures of the earth, at no time did he place human beings under that purview of rule- neither had the right to rule over the other. Therefore, it was not any right of equality of rule which the woman- somehow- lost. In fact, there is no mention of the woman having lost anything in YHWH’s judgment of her. She remained, as was originally planned and intended, a helper- not a slave, a helper.
          According to the narrative, the desire of the woman would be toward her man and that he would ימשׁל־בך yimshol-bakh [he shall rule you]. This is not a statement of loss of position as the woman was never said to have rule over anything but the creatures of the earth- the same as the man. It was clear that she was intended to be a helper, not a co-regent. She was never demoted. The man, as is the right of every firstborn, actually had the role of leadership- albeit, there are instances in the Tenakh where the firstborn lost that right. Adham was made first and the woman made from the man- meaning she was from him, but he not from her. At no time was the man beholden to the woman, but she was beholden to the man. This is not a position of inequality, but of respect- the elders of the family have more “authority” in decision making than the younger.
          The wife is, as was originally intended, the helper of her husband. It must be born in mind that helper does not mean servant- although service is also a form of help. On the contrary, help means a mutual endeavor to achieve a common goal. Although the man has the rule of the house and his wife is, as are his children, his property, this does not mean the man has no responsibility in the household- she is not his slave. Both must work together to make a Peaceful, Functioning, and Mutually Beneficial home.
 א Who can find a valiant woman? for her price is far above precious stones.
ב The heart of her husband safely trusts in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil.
ג She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.
ד She sought wool and flax and worked willingly with her hands.
ה She was like the merchants’ ships; she brings her food from afar.
ו She rose up even at night and gave food to her family and a portion to her maidens.
ז She considered the inheritance and bought it; with the fruit of her hands she planted a vineyard.
ח She girded her loins with strength and strengthened her arms.
ט She perceived that her merchandise was good; her fire did not go out by night.
י She laid her hands to the spindle, and her hands held the distaff.
כ She stretched out her hand to the poor; yea, she reached forth her hands to the destitute.
ל She shall not be afraid of the snow for her family, for all her family is clothed with double garments.
מ She makes herself tapestries; her clothing is of fine linen and purple.
נ Her husband is known in the gates when he sits among the elders of the land.
ס She made fine linen and sold it and delivered girdles unto the merchant.
ע Strength and glory is her clothing, and she shall laugh in the last day.
פ She opened her mouth with wisdom, and the law of mercy is upon her tongue.
צ She looks well to the ways of her household and does not eat bread in idleness.
ק Her sons rose up and called her blessed; her husband also, and he praised her.
ר Many daughters have done valiantly, but thou dost excel them all.
ש Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but the woman that fears the LORD shall be praised.
ת Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her own works praise her in the gates.
Proverb 31:10-31

Interpretation and Biblical Scholarship

כֹּל פֵּירוּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוּ עַל פֵּירוּשׁ הַטְעָמִים לֹא תֹאבֶה לֹו וְלֹא תִשְׁמַע אֵלָיו

You shall not consent to nor listen to any interpretation which is not according to the interpretation of the te’amim [meaning the Masoretic vocalizations and accents].

Abraham ibn Ezra 1089–c.1167 one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical peshat commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages. Bracketed text is mine.

The Massoretic vocalization and accents are the written vowel signs and accent marks found in the Hebrew Bible which were devised by the Masoretes- a group of priestly Bible scholars between the 5th and 10th centuries ACE. Their responsibility was to safeguard the meaning of the Hebrew Text and the correct pronunciation of the Hebrew language due to the exile of the Israelite peoples and their subsequent loss of their knowledge of the Hebrew language. It is due to the work of these Masorete Scholars that the Hebrew Text of the Bible was safeguarded- as well as the correct rules to Hebrew grammar.

To be a scholar [חָכָם- Hakham] of the Hebrew Bible, which is the definition of a Karaite, one must use proper skills in interpretation. Interpretation means, literally, translation- it comes from the Latin interpres which was a broker or one which was employed to act as a liaison between two parties. Anyone who wishes to have an interpretation of the Bible can only have one in which it is between the Hebrew Text and themselves; in order to do this, one must first have mastered the Hebrew language. No person can be said to interpret a text of scripture from a translation [a word which means something that was carried across- that is, carried from Hebrew to another language]. Exposition of the Hebrew Text is being able to extrapolate exegesis from the Hebrew Text and expound it to those who do not know Hebrew themselves in a correct and understandable manner. When it comes to true Biblical Scholarship, one employs the skill of exegesis- meaning one brings a meaning from the Text. This is then passed along to others in the form of exposition- which is setting the exegesis before an audience or students.

Poor Biblical Scholarship is the exact opposite. A false interpreter uses eisegesis- adding something into a text which wasn’t there- and imposition- which means to put a thesis into the Text.

True Biblical Scholarship= Exegesis and Exposition

False Biblical Scholarship= Eisegesis and Imposition

A false interpreter= one who does not know the original language for which he claims to translate- all interpretation equals translation which cannot be accomplished from one ignorant of the language to be translated.

I challenge everyone who reads this to do an etymological search for the following words:







What many, today, mean by interpretation is actually opinion. Opinion comes from the Latin opinor which means to opine- that is, to imagine or the think, to suppose. The motto of the Karaite [Bible Scholar] is

חַפִּשׂוּ בְאֹורַיְיתָא שַׁפִּיר וְאַל תִּשָּׁעֲנוּ עַל דַּעְתִּי
Search in the Torah thoroughly and do not support yourself with my opinion.
Anan bin David

This motto is interesting and profound. The first part is Aramaic and the second Hebrew. The first word חַפִּשׂוּ- happisu is a plural imperative from from חפשׂ which meant to search- it is a duty for everyone to do this. The second part begins with the negating particle אל- al which is used as a temporary negation; when a permanent negation is meant, the negating particle לא- lo is used. This means that we are not to support ourselves on any opinion immediately, but are to take every opinion to task and search in the Torah for the truth of the matter. If it proves to not violate the Tenakh, then we may accept an opinion.

An example of how we can understand the advice of ibn Ezra and the Karaite Motto spoken by Anan ben David can be seen from the first chapter of Genesis.

In the first chapter of Genesis, we find the statement

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם בְּצַלְמֵ֖נוּ כִּדְמוּתֵ֑נוּ וְיִרְדּוּ֩ בִדְגַ֨ת הַיָּ֜ם וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבְכָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֖מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃

And Elohim said, “We want to make a human in our image- according to our likeness; that they may rule over the fish of the seas, the bird of the skies, the beast, over all the earth and the creeping things which creep on the earth.”

The normal translation of נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם na’aseh adham is Let us make a man- which indicated that Elohim was seeking permission as opposed to stating His intention and desire to accomplish the act. The verb נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה na’aseh is a cohortative and not simply an imperfect verb. A cohortative always comes at the beginning of its clause- as this verb clearly did. An interesting aspect of the cohortative is that it expresses a wish or desire- an intention to accomplish something. In a similar manner, we can also understand other uses of the cohortative in relation to YHWH- for instance in Genesis 12:2-3

וְאֶֽעֶשְׂךָ֙ לְג֣וֹי גָּד֔וֹל וַאֲבָ֣רֶכְךָ֔ וַֽאֲגַדְּלָ֖ה שְׁמֶ֑ךָ וֶֽהְיֵ֖ה בְּרָכָֽה׃
I will make you a great nation, and bless you; I want to make your name great- so be a blessing,
וַאֲבָֽרְכָה֙ מְבָ֣רְכֶ֔יךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ֖ אָאֹ֑ר וְנִבְרְכ֣וּ בְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל מִשְׁפְּחֹ֥ת הָֽאֲדָמָֽה׃

I want to bless those blessing you and those cursing you, I will curse; so that by you all the families of the land shall be blessed.

The final clause “and you will be a blessing” is grossly mistranslated by all translations. The verb וֶֽהְיֵ֖ה wehyeh is an imperative- it is a command; every translation falsely translated this imperative as an imperfect וְהָיִיתָ [and you shall be]. The final clause is rightly translated as “so be a blessing.”

Another interesting thing about these translations is the final clause of the first section וַֽאֲגַדְּלָ֖ה שְׁמֶ֑ךָ which is normally translated as “and I will make your name great” as if this is a consecutive verb, but it is not. The verb וַֽאֲגַדְּלָ֖ה wa’aghaddelah is in the cohortative- which expresses a volition, a wish in the 1st person singular or plural. If it had been a consecutive verb in the imperfect, it would have been written וָאֶגְדַּל wa’eghdal, but it was not. The clause should have been translated as “I want to make your name great.” 

This same construction was used throughout this parashah [section]- for instance:

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה זַֽעֲקַ֛ת סְדֹ֥ם וַֽעֲמֹרָ֖ה כִּי־רָ֑בָּה וְחַ֨טָּאתָ֔ם כִּ֥י כָֽבְדָ֖ה מְאֹֽד׃ אֵֽרְדָה־נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה הַכְּצַֽעֲקָתָ֛הּ הַבָּ֥אָה אֵלַ֖י עָשׂ֣וּ ׀ כָּלָ֑ה וְאִם־לֹ֖א אֵדָֽעָה׃

And YHWH said, “the cry of Sodom and Amorah- it is great; for their sin has become very great. I want to go down and see- have they completely done according to its cry that comes to me; and if not, I want to know.” Genesis 18:20-21

I think it is better to translate any cohortative in reference to YHWH as a volitional intent as opposed to translating it as a request using the English let- as this is a form of asking permission or allowance to do something.

For the Prophet of Today was Called the Seer Before-times

In the course of human history, there have been many individuals who were known as a prophet; mostly, this title held a religious connotation, but in many instances, the prophet was also a military commander on the battlefield. The prophet, according to the various religious Judeo-Christian-Islamic texts, spoke for God and was the means by which the Divine Inspirations were delivered to humanity. According to the Israelite text, God spoke through the prophets by means of dreams and visions; God, accordingly, would do nothing in the physical realm without first informing his prophets (1917 The Jewish Publication Society Numbers 12.6; Amos 3.7). The English word prophet derived from the Greek prophētēs— itself derived from the Greek preposition pro and the substantive phētēs. Originally, the term meant to speak out or to speak openly— it can even mean to speak in advance. In the ancient Greek writings, the prophet was the herald of the champions who competed in the Olympian games (Bacchylides, Epinicians 9.3). According to this understanding, John the Baptist was understood to be the herald of Jesus the Nazarene. In the Semitic languages of Judaism and Islam, the word for a prophet was נָבִיא navi’ which was derived from the verb נָבָא nava’ meaning to inform. In the Hebrew Text, Abraham was the first to be named a prophet, but it was Joseph who was the first to demonstrate just what a prophet could do.


Joseph was the first son of Jacob that was born to Rachel— his younger brother was Benjamin. Rachel was the beloved wife of Jacob for whom he labored seven years to marry. Of course, Jacob was tricked into marrying her sister Leah— seeing that she was the firstborn. According to the Hebrew Text, Leah was the first to have children- which was an act of God because Jacob did not love Leah. After many years, Rachel finally gave birth to Joseph- as Jacob had become old; for this reason, Joseph was the beloved son of Jacob— prompting jealousy from his 10 other brothers.

When Joseph was around the age of 17, he had a dream; in his dream, he was binding sheaves with his brothers. His sheave stood up and the sheaves that his brothers had bound prostrated themselves to Joseph’s sheave. When he told this to his brothers, it made them even more jealous— to the point that they could not speak any peaceable word to Joseph. To add fuel to the fire, Joseph related to his parent and his brothers a second dream. In that dream, Joseph saw the sun, the moon, and eleven stars prostrating themselves to Joseph. This time, even his father admonished him.

As his brothers were keeping their father’s sheep, Jacob sent Joseph to them to bring back word. It was at this time that his brothers plotted against him— at first, considering to kill him. In the end, they decided to sell him into slavery. He was taken to Egypt by a caravan of Ishmaelites and was sold to Potiphar— the chief executioner of Pharaoh.

As the servant of Potiphar, Joseph received the honor of being the chief steward of Potiphar’s house. All of the household affairs was left to Joseph. In time, Joseph ran into some problems with Potiphar’s wife which landed him a demotion— from being the chief steward to being the chief jailer at the prison which was located at the house of Potiphar. While Joseph was in this position, two of Pharaoh’s servants- the chief cup-bearer and the chief baker- were both sent to the prison in which Joseph was the administrator. While in prison, these two men each had a dream— Joseph was able to interpret both dreams. The baker was executed by Pharaoh and the chief cup-bearer was returned to his duties.

A few years passed by and Pharaoh himself had two dreams in the same night. When he woke from these dreams, he sought for one who could explain the meaning of the dreams— none of Pharaoh’s advisers could proffer an explanation. At this point, the chief cup-bearer remembered Joseph and how he was able to interpret his own dream while in prison; the cup-bearer informed Pharaoh that such an interpreter was available.

Many have attributed the ability of Joseph to interpret these dreams as being a divine inspiration; it is, however, more likely that Joseph was educated enough to deduce the meanings of the dreams himself. The station in which Joseph found himself, as well as the dreams of Pharaoh, is sufficient to prove this theory.

First, it must be established that Potiphar was the chief executioner of Pharaoh; Joseph was formerly his chief steward who was amazing at running the affairs of Potiphar’s household. The only problem came from Potiphar’s wife who accused Joseph of sexual advances. Many might have assumed that Potiphar was angry at Joseph for this and placed him in prison, but this is not correct according to the narrative. Joseph was demoted and given charge of the prison— at which he also excelled. Potiphar and Joseph remained friends and it was Potiphar who set Pharaoh’s chief cup-bearer and chief baker under Joseph’s charge. It is probably that Pharaoh had already determined that the chief baker would be executed— Potiphar, the chief executioner, would have sure explained this to Joseph. To the men, however, it seemed as if Joseph was inspired by God.

In Pharaoh’s first dream, he found himself standing on the banks of the Nile when seven healthy cows emerged from the river to feed upon the grass. After them, emerged seven unhealthy and lean cows which ate the healthy cows. In Pharaoh’s second dream, he saw seven healthy and full ears of grain growing from a single stalk; he then saw seven unhealthy ears of grain which seemed to have been blasted and dried out by an Eastern wind which grew up after the seven healthy ears— then he woke.

Joseph, again, explained the meaning of Pharaoh’s dreams correctly; the question is how? There are several clues in the dreams themselves which can shed light on how Joseph understood them. First of which is Pharaoh’s position in the dreams— standing on the banks of the Nile. The Nile was used to begin the Egyptian year; the Egyptian calendar began at the inundation of the Nile when the Nile overflows its banks and re-nourishes the farmlands with fresh silt. In Egyptian mythology, the Nile was named after the personification of the inundation itself— Hapi. Hapi was considered a fertility deity as well as a deity of the established cosmos; in other words, Hapi kept the cosmos in order. Since Pharaoh was standing on the banks of Hapi, Joseph understood that this dream was related to the cosmos, the order of the universe, as well as time itself. The cows of Pharaoh’s dreams would have been easily identified with the Egyptian goddess Hathor— her name meaning the House of Horus [the Egyptian Sun god]. She represented the primordial waters from which the sun was born at the beginning of time; she was represented as a cow. The cows, being fourteen, naturally would have represented fourteen events connected with time; the fact that Pharaoh stood on the banks of the Nile for this dream meant that it would have been fourteen years as the inundation was the beginning of the Egyptian solar year.

Immediately, Joseph would have recognized fourteen years in Pharaoh’s first dream; the next step would have been to understand just what about these fourteen years Pharaoh was dreaming. The first seven cows were healthy while the last seven were lean and fed upon the healthy cows.  Although these cows could have represented any number of interpretations, Pharaoh had a second dream. In that dream, he saw the seven healthy and full ears of grain after which seven wind-blasted ears grew up. Grain is the source of bread and of life in Egypt. In ancient Egyptian, the words for life and grain are written the same— ankh. The difference in the words are found only in the determinatives; for grain, ankh would have three seeds as a determinative sign while for life or living beings, ankh would have the scarab beetle as a determinative. The scarab was the symbol of creation, being, existence as well as resurrection and renewal of life. With these two dreams, Joseph would have understood that both represented a fourteen years period in which life and food would be involved. The seven healthy cows and the seven full ears of life-giving grain would have naturally represented a seven-year period of plenty. The seven lean cows and the seven wind-dried ears of grain would, then, represent a seven-year period in which food would be scarce.

In addition to these clues, there was also the direction of the wind which blasted and dried the grain— from the East. This clue would have brought Joseph’s attention to the generational cycle of famine which plagued Cana’an. There was famine in the days of his great-grandfather Abraham; there was also a famine in the days of his grandfather Isaac. The famine of his generation was already beginning when he was sold into slavery— the reason why the sons of Jacob were in Shekhem and not in Hebron with their father. The herbage had already begun to be scarce. The fact that the wind was from the East meant that the famine would, eventually, reach Egypt. Joseph, then, had all the clues to figure out the meaning of the dream without divine inspiration.

There is an interesting verse concerning prophets and seers in the first book of Samuel

Before-time in Israel, when a man went to inquire of God, thus he said: ‘Come and let us go to the seer’; for he that is now called a prophet was before-time called a seer. (1917 The Jewish Publication Society 1 Samuel 9:9)

The Hebrew word for seer is רֹואֶה ro’eh— from the verb רָאָה ra’ah [to see]. In the Hebrew Text, when God would appear to someone, it was written that God was made to be seen; the niph’al [passive] verb וַיֵּרָא wayyera was consistently used. In the first book of the Chronicles is another interesting passage concerning Uzziah seeking the visions of God from Zechariah

And he set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had understanding in the vision of God; and as long as he sought the LORD, God made him to prosper.

(1917 The Jewish Publication Society 1 Chronicles 26:5)

In this passage, the hiphil participle הַמֵּבִין hamebin was used as a periphrasis for the skill of Zachariah— in other words, the prophet; Zechariah was the one able to make the visions of God understandable.

A prophet, the Semitic word meaning one who is informed, began as a seer. A seer is someone which is enlightened and pays attention to the situation and time in which he/she find him/herself. By seeing and observing the events in the prison, Joseph was able to rightly interpret the dreams of Pharaoh’s ministers; by understanding the past environment in which he lived and the stories passed along from his parents- as well as having an understanding of the political and religious life of Egypt- Joseph was able to rightly predict the coming famine of Pharaoh’s dream.

And there ran a young man, and told Moses, and said: ‘Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp.’ And Joshua the son of Nun, the minister of Moses from his youth up, answered and said: ‘My lord Moses, shut them in.’ And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them!’ (1917 The Jewish Publication Society Numbers 11:27-29)






Courts and Jurisdiction

Stubborn and Rebellious son

In parashath Shofetim [Deuteronomy 16:18-21:9], we learned that we were to take any case- which was too wonderful for the local magistrates- to the place YHWH chose to set His name- to the Kohanim and Judges presiding in those days and in that place [Deuteronomy 17:8-13].


In parashath Khi Theitzei [Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19], we are given the example of a case concerning a son who will not obey his parents- even after they have corrected him. In this case, the parents were told to seize the child and take him to the gates of his city and to the elders of his city and explain the case. The child is then stoned to death [Deuteronomy 21:18-21].

Here is a clear case which was investigated and the accused was clearly guilty; the child was not taken to the Place and to the Kohanim and Judges, but to his own city and to his own elders. The people of his city would have been familiar with the case and knew that the parents were speaking truthfully and the child- indeed- was stubborn and rebellious.

In last parashath Shofetim, we were given the example of an accidental death; the one which killed his neighbor had the opportunity to flee to the city of refuge [Deuteronomy 19:4-13]. In the city of refuge, he was afforded the right to trial and present his case. The Kohanim were to take the man to that Place and to the Kohanim and Judges in those days who were to diligently examine the case. If found guilty, the man was delivered to the redeemer of blood for execution. If found not guilty, he was remanded to the custody of the city of refuge until the death of the Kohen Gadhol [Numbers 35:25, 28].

In this last case, the accused was taken to the High Court and tried. This is because, in the case of accidental murder, there would be no partiality due to familial relations in the city in which the accused and his neighbor might have lived. He would be given a fair trial.

Blasting the Shofar

Psalm 81: 4 reads: תקעו בחדשׁ שׁופר בכסה ליום חגנו׃

Blast the shofar on [at] the hodesh; on [at] the keiseh, for the day of our hag.

Hodesh and keiseh were speaking of the same day- the first of the month. The prepositional phrases “on the hodesh” and “on the keiseh” identified the time when the shofar was to be blasted; the final prepositional clause identified the reason for such a blast “for the day of our hag.”

This was explained:

כִּ֤י חֹ֣ק לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל ה֑וּא מִ֝שְׁפָּ֗ט לֵאלֹהֵ֥י יַעֲקֹֽב׃

For it is an ordinance [hoq] of Israel; a judgment of the Deity of Jacob. Psalm 81:5

The preposition לְ can indicate a dative or a genitive relation- that is, it can be either to, for, or of. The hoq mentioned is most definitely the hoq of Pesah as it was mentioned at the origin of this institution

וְהָיָה֩ הַיֹּ֨ום הַזֶּ֤ה לָכֶם֙ לְזִכָּרֹ֔ון וְחַגֹּתֶ֥ם אֹתֹ֖ו חַ֣ג לַֽיהוָ֑ה לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם חֻקַּ֥ת עֹולָ֖ם תְּחָגֻּֽהוּ׃

And this day shall be for you as a memorial, and you shall celebrate it, as YHWH’s celebration; throughout your generations, an eternal statute [huqqath ‘olam], you shall celebrate it. Exodus 12:14

וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹ֔ן זֹ֖את חֻקַּ֣ת הַפָּ֑סַח כָּל־בֶּנ־נֵכָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בֹּֽו׃

Then YHWH said to Mosheh and Aharon, “This is the ordinance of Pesah; no foreign son may eat of it.” Exodus 12:43

וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֛ אֶת־הַחֻקָּ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לְמֹועֲדָ֑הּ מִיָּמִ֖ים יָמִֽימָה׃

Thus you shall observe this ordinance- at its appointed time; from days to days. Exodus 13:10

At the giving of the Torah, this ordinance was included among the mishpatim given

וְאֵ֙לֶּה֙ הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּשִׂ֖ים לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃

So these are the judgments which you shall set before them. Exodus 21:1

אֶת־חַ֣ג הַמַּצֹּות֮ תִּשְׁמֹר֒ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִים֩ תֹּאכַ֨ל מַצֹּ֜ות כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֗ךָ לְמֹועֵד֙ חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב כִּי־בֹ֖ו יָצָ֣אתָ מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וְלֹא־יֵרָא֥וּ פָנַ֖י רֵיקָֽם׃

The celebration of the Matstsoth you shall observe- seven days you shall eat matstsoth as I commanded you, in the appointed month of the Aviv, for in it you came out of Egypt; and you shall not appear before me destitute. Exodus 23:15

It was the final clause of Psalm 81:4 [ליום הגנו leyom haggeinu- for the day of our celebration] which was intended as the hoq and mishpat which was given by the Deity of Jacob to Israel when they left out of Egypt- as well as the cause to blow the shofar in the month, at the new moon [the time when the moon is nearly completely covered with darkness]. It was the month of the Aviv which we were commanded to observe in its proper time- along with its ordinances and judgments

וְיַעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת-הַפָּסַח בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ
בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר-יוֹם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ כְּכָל-חֻקֹּתָיו וּכְכָל-מִשְׁפָּטָיו תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ

So let the children of Israel do the Pesah in its appointed time. On the fourteenth day of this month, between the two evenings, you shall do it in its appointed time- according to its ordinances and according to its judgments shall you do it. Numbers 9:2-3

The blowing of the shofar, at the hodesh of the Aviv, ensured that all of Israel knew when the month began and could observe the ordinance, judgment, and commandment of the Pesah and celebrations of the days of matstsoth.

That the word keseh indicated the new moon can be determined from the use of the word in other ancient Semitic societies surrounding Israel. Kusuh was an ancient Hurrian moon deity whose number was thirty- corresponding with the number of days in a lunar month; in Hittat hieroglyphics, his determinate was the sickle moon.

In early Semitic writing, the root KSH meant to cover, to conceal. In the early lands of the Semitic peoples- Akkad, Sumer, etc., there was a lunar deity called KuSuH. His day was the 30th of each month- when the moon was covered nearly completely. His determinate sign was the sickle moon- the crescent moon. This means the day known as KuSuH was the day the moon was covered except for the smallest sliver- the crescent. The early Hurrian name for the month is KuSuH- named after the lunar deity.

One final comment; in 81:5 the words hoq and mishpat are qualified by the masculine pronoun הוא. This indicated that the subject was a masculine word. In the preceding verse [81:4], the verbal form for blowing a shofar is T-Q-A’- the substantive would be תְּקִיעָה ; this demonstrated that it was the hag- a masculine noun- and not the blowing of the shofar which was qualified by the words hoq and mishpat.

The Sons of Adam and the Fallen Line of Cain

The Biblical narrative of the fall of humanity, original sin, the first murder, etc. present some questions which have puzzled Bible readers for centuries. Some of the most often questions I receive are “Where did Cain get his wife?” and “Who were the nefilim?”

Answering these questions requires an understanding of Hebrew grammar and syntax- especially of narrative structure. The first thing to understand is that the Bible is not always written in a chronological sequence; this means that when a narrative is read, it must not demand that what came first in the narrative was always the first in the narrative sequence.

An easy explanation of this can be drawn from the first two verses of the Bible, “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was formless and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.” When one reads this in English, or many other translations, one might think the first two verses are in the same narrative sequence; this, however, is incorrect.

In Hebrew, the conjunction and [Waw וְ ] has several functions; the conjunction can be a temporal modifier signaling a transition from an imperfect to perfect- this is with verbs. The conjunctions can signal a continuation of a narrative sequence- the most common use of the conjunction. The conjunction can also be used as a disjunctive- a break or pause in a narrative sequence. In this case, the conjunction signifies a parenthetical narrative in the narrative sequence or a break in the prior narrative sequence and the beginning of a new narrative.

As a disjunctive, the Hebrew and [וְ -Waw] is prefixed to a non-verb in the beginning of its clause; this is what occurred in the second verse above- “And the Earth was…” This construction indicated a disjunction from the preceding verse. The creation narrative, then, actually began with the second verse and not with the first verse. This use of the disjunctive Waw [and] is employed in the narratives which followed the creation narrative: Genesis 3:1 “And the serpent was…;” Genesis 4:1 “And the man knew…;” Genesis 4:4 “And Abel brought…” In each of these cases, the use of the disjunctive Waw [and] indicated a break from the previous narrative sequence.

Genesis 3:1 indicated the break in the creation narrative sequence; it began a new narrative sequence from the point of view of the initial sin of Eve. It was not a chronological sequence but could have been up to 130 years after the events of the creation of man. Later, in Genesis, it is explained that Adam was 130 years old when Seth was born- after their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. In the midst of this narrative, Genesis 4:1 presented a new, parenthetical narrative sequence. This, too, is irrespective of time- when this took place was never clearly mentioned. The use of the disjunctive Waw here indicated that before the temptation of Eve, the children were born; this is the natural understanding of the Hebrew Text when the first commandment God ever gave Adam and Eve was to be “fruitful and multiply.” That they could have spent as much as 130 years in the Garden of Eden without procreation meant that they spent up to 130 years disobeying God’s first commandment. This use of the disjunctive clearly demonstrated that the children- who were twins- were born in the Garden and were not expelled with Adam and Eve [1]

The expulsion of Adam and Eve was not a simple command to leave the Garden but was a rather forceful and possibly a violent act. Neither of the two wished to leave the Garden of God. This is indicated by the use of the two verbs sent [שָׁלַח- shalah] and drove [גָרַשׁ- garash] in 3:23 and 24. The verb sent indicated that they were requested to leave and that they were, possibly, accompanied to the border of the Garden. The verb drove indicated that this was not a consensual leaving on the part of Adam and Eve, but they were compelled to go; this is made even more clear by the fact that the way back was guarded by cherubs wielding flaming swords.

The narrative of the birth of Cain and Abel is an interruption in the sequence of the expulsion of Adam and Eve; it explained an event which occurred prior to Adam and Eve being expelled- the birth of the twins. This narrative is immediately interrupted by the last of the disjunctive Waw clauses- Genesis 4:4 “And Abel brought…”

The new narrative began from the point of view of Cain and Abel who were adults and still living in the Garden after the expulsion of their parents. The disjunctive interrupted the narrative from the clause, “And in process of time it came to pass.” The phrase “process of time” is [מִקֵּץ יָמִים -miqqets yamim] in Hebrew and meant the end of an age. Sometimes, it was translated as “end of days.” To what end of the age is being referenced is clear- the end of the age of innocence. At the conclusion of this narrative sequence, there would be none left who had not sinned against God.

To know, for sure, that Cain was born in a natural state of perfection, it is simple to point out that the Erbsünde [inherited sin] could not have applied to Cain. This is made clear by the statement of God, “If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door. Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it” (Genesis 4:7). The final clause is written in the imperfect in the Hebrew [וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל-בּוֹ -weAttah timshol-bo; yet you, you rule over it]. This is not permissive nor an offer of advice, but a statement of fact; at this point, Cain ruled over sin- it had no power over him just like it had no power over his parents. After this, God said this to no other person.

A comparison of the two narratives- that of the expulsion of Adam and Eve and the expulsion of Cain- will explain to where they were all expelled. Adam and Eve were expelled, rather forcefully, to the East of the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3;24). It was outside the Garden of Eden which came to be known as the Land of Nod [נֹוד -nod meaning wandering]. As opposed to his parents, Cain willingly left from the presence of God- which was in the Garden (Genesis 3:8). This is demonstrated by the lack of the two verbs sent and drove; rather it stated that Cain “went out.” The direction of travel, as in the case of his parents, was to the East- to the Land of Wandering (Genesis 4:16).

Cain left from Eden and went to the same land where his parents had been sent; this raises the question, “How long were Adam and Eve in the Land of Nod?” We already know that Adam was 130 years at the birth of Seth; before he was born, Adam had already given birth to many other children- including women. It is from the women born to Adam that Cain took his wife; this marriage and mixture led to the events of Genesis 6 and the deluge. It was Cain’s lineage who invented weapons of war (Genesis 4:22), instruments of pleasure (Genesis 4:21), and were the first to take possessions (Genesis 4:20); his children followed his example as explained from the confession of Lamech- who had also killed many people. Adam’s line- through Seth- were sorry for their sins and tried to amend their ways and walk with God; Cain’s line, however, was unrepentant and spread violence and corruption over the face of the Earth. The Godly line was called the sons of God while the sinful line was called the sons of Adam [men].

The events of Genesis 4 and 5 led to the events of chapter 6. There have been volumes of wasted ink on this subject- most of which ignore the contextual backdrop to the chapter and invent fairy-tales of some sort of inbreeding between humans and angels.

Most of the speculation surrounds verses 1-4 with a strong emphasis on verse 4 in particular.

Gen 6:1 Now when humankind [הָאָדָם -haAdam; the man] began to multiply on the face of the ground and daughters were born to them,

Gen 6:2 and the sons of God [benei haElohim] saw that the daughters of men were good and they took for themselves wives, any they chose.

Gen 6:3 Then the Lord said, “My Spirit will not quarrel [2] with humankind [baAdam- with the man] forever, since they are flesh. So their days will be 120 years.”

Gen 6:4 The nephilim [הַנְּפִלִים] were on the earth in those days, and also afterward when the sons of God came to the daughters of men and gave birth to them. Those were the mighty men of old, men of renown.

Adam [אָדָם] is the name that God called humanity- both female and male- in the day He created them.

Gen 5:1 This is the Book of the Genealogies of Adam [אָדָם]: When God created Adam, in the likeness of God He made him.

Gen 5:2 Male and female He created them, and He blessed them and called their name “Adam” when He created them.

The humans which followed God and sought to amend their ways were then, and thereafter, referred to as sons of God [בְּנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים -benei haElohim]:

Ye are the children of the LORD your God Deuteronomy 14:1

it shall be said unto them, Ye are the sons of the living God. Hosea 1:10

The idea behind the phrase benei haElohim [בְּנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים – sons of God] is not one of absolute sinlessness, nor of being always on the side of right; the idea is and always has been one of contriteness and a readiness to do what is right in the face of bad decisions. After the birth of Seth, in the days of his son Enosh [mortal man], the line of Adam began to call upon the name of the Lord (Genesis 4:26). In Genesis 5:22, it stated that Enoch [Hanokh- dedicated] walked with God. The verb used for “walk” is hit-halek [הִתְהַלֵּךְ] in Hebrew; this is both a reciprocal verb stem as well as a reflexive and meant that one did this for or to themselves as well as in conjunction with another. The idea is that Enoch sought to amend his ways, by walking in the path of God, and God blessed him for it.

It is the same idea behind King David being called a “man after God’s heart” even though he committed murder and adultery; after the crimes were committed, David was genuinely sorry and sought to reform his ways and make restitution for his bad decisions. Repentance [תְּשׁוּבָה -teshuvah] is the key:

“Now when all these things come upon you—the blessing and the curse that I have set before you—and you take them to heart in all the nations where the Lord your God has banished you, and you return [וְשַׁבְתָּ -weshavta] to the Lord your God and listen to His voice according to all that I am commanding you today—you and your children—with all your heart and with all your soul, then the Lord your God will bring you back from captivity and have compassion on you, and He will return and gather you from all the peoples where the Lord your God has scattered you. Even if your outcasts are at the ends of the heavens, from there the Lord your God will gather you, and from there He will bring you.

Deuteronomy 30:1-4 [see also Deuteronomy 4:24-31]

“Do I delight at all in the death of the wicked?” It is a declaration of Adonai. “Rather, should he not return [בְּשׁוּבֹו -beshuvo] from his ways, and live? Ezekiel 18:23

In contrast to the godly line of Adam, the line of Cain was not sorry and sought no reform; on the other hand, they continued in their murderous ways and developed the art of pleasure and war. This line was called the nephilim. Nefilim is a plural passive participle from the verb NaFaL- to fall; the passive participle is used, more often than not, as an adjective in Hebrew. The nephilim are those people who were in a fallen state. The choice of word used in this narrative echoed back to the fall of Cain himself:

Cain became very angry, and his countenance fell [וַיִּפְּלוּ -wayYippelu]. Then the Lord said to Cain, “Why are you angry? And why has your countenance fallen [נָפְלוּ -noflu]? Genesis 4:5-6

The idea behind the verb NaFaL [נָפַל]- when applied to humans- can have several meanings; the most common meaning, when applied to humans, is that of death, or one fallen in battle. The nephilim in Genesis 6:4, however, was alive and not dead; the meaning in this case, then, is that of a person from one camp defecting to the people of another camp- they changed sides. Consider the following verse:

Then the remnant of the people who were left in the city—the deserters [הַנֹּפְלִים -haNofelim] who had defected [נָפְלוּ -noflu] to the Babylonian king and the rest of the populace—Nebuzaradan captain of the guard exiled them. 2 Kings 25:11

The nephilim in Genesis 6:4, then, were those who were formerly godly but fell to the wicked ways of the sons of Cain. This is easily proven when considering the verse:

The nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, whenever the sons of God came to the daughters of men and gave birth to them. Those were the mighty men of old, men of renown.

The last clause of this verse, in Hebrew, is actually a bit different than what is commonly translated:

הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם

These were the gibborim [גִּבֹּרִים] which were from ancient times [מֵעוֹלָם -me’Olam] men of God [אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם -anshe HaShem].

Gibborim [גִּבֹּרִים], in Hebrew, represented men of war, or men of great valor; David’s warriors were called gibborim (2Samuel 23:8)- so too was Nimrod called a gibbor [גִּבֹּר] (Genesis 10:8). The line of Cain was responsible for spreading violence in the Earth and the mixture of the godly line of Adam ensured that their wicked ways would dominate the world. These wicked men spread violence and war; in the end, God saw the world destroyed from these people:

God saw the earth, and behold it was destroyed because all flesh had destroyed their way upon the earth. Genesis 6:12

Only Noah was a righteous man and always sought to walk with God; for this reason, God spared the life of Noah and his family.

Noah was a righteous man. He was blameless among his generation. Noah continually walked with God. Genesis 6:9

For you only do I perceive as righteous before Me in this generation. Genesis 7:1

This narrative dealt with the consequences of the fall of humanity, the faith and righteous acts of the men of God, and their deliverance and reward for their faithfulness to God’s law. It never had anything to do with fallen angels fathering hybrid children with humans and creating a race of giants or supermen. In fact, angels are not mentioned in this narrative nor were they the objects of divine wrath.


[1] Rashi,  the medieval Rabbi and Torah commentator Shlomo Yitzchaki, explained concerning this verse:  והאדם ידע AND THE MAN KNEW already before the events related above look place — before he sinned and was driven out of the Garden of Eden. So, also, the conception and birth of Cain took place before this. Had it been written, וידע אדם it would imply that after he was driven out children were born to him (Genesis Rabbah 22:2).


[2] My Spirit will not quarrel with humankind forever, since they are flesh. The verb used I translated as quarrel is יָדוֹן- yadon from the verb root [דין] D-Y-N; this word is used in reference to quarreling or disputing over a case of law or a matter of controversy- similar to trying a case in court. Consider the following:

Open your mouth, judge righteously, plead [וְדִין -wedin] the cause of the poor and needy. Proverb 31:9

All the people throughout all the tribes of Israel were at strife [נָדוֹן -nadon] saying, “The king delivered us from the hand of our enemies and he saved us from the hand of the Philistines. Yet now he had to flee from the land because of Absalom, 2Smauel 19:10